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Organic Chemistry Year 2 > Amines > Flashcards

Flashcards in Amines Deck (23)
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1

how do you name amines

-amine or - amino-

2

why are amines so reactive

the lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen due to the polar N-H bond

3

what shape are amines around the N

trigonal pyramidal
107

4

intermolecular forces

hydrogen bonding due to polar N-H bond and lone pair of electrons

5

what state are amines at 298K

short chains gases
longer are volatile liquids

6

what do they smell of

fish

7

which primary amines are soluble in water/alcohols

up to 4 carbon atoms
s they can hydrogen bond to water molecules

8

solubility of phenylamine

not very
non polarity of the benzene ring

9

when do amines act as a base

when they bond with H+

10

when do amines act as a nucleophile

when the bond with an electron-deficient C atom

11

what is the product from the basic action of an amine with water

RNH3+ which forms a salt with an anion

12

how could you regenerate the soluble amine from the ammonium salt

add a strong base which removes H+ ions from ammonium ion

13

in order to be the strongest base, what must a particular amine have

greatest electron density around the N atom, making it a better electron pair donor

14

what does positive/negative inductive effect mean

positive inductive effect = donate electrons, increase density around N
negative … = removes electrons, decrease density around N

15

what effect do alkyl groups have on electron density and base strength

positive inductive effect- increase electron density around N so a stronger base

16

what effect do aryl groups have on electron density and base strength

negative inductive effect- decrease electron density around N so a weaker base

17

why are 3' amines never good bases

insoluble in water

18

how can primary amines then form 2', 3' and 4' ammonium ions

multiple substitutions
primary amine is a nucleophile that attacks the original haloalkane

19

what type of mechanism is the reaction of a haloalkane with a cyanide ion
conditions

nucleophilic substitution
ethanol, nitrile is formed

20

how do you get from a nitrile to a primary amine

reduction using nickel
hydrogen catalyst

21

conditions to form nitrobenzene from benzene

conc H2SO4
HNO3

22

ammonium chloride salt from nitrobenzene

tin
HCl
room temp

23

what are cationic surfactants

quaternary ammonium salts with a cation that is charged at one end and non polar at the other