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Flashcards in carboxylic acids and derivatives Deck (39)
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1

what is a carboxylic acid

COOH

2

how do you name carboxylic acids

-oic acid

3

are they soluble in water

yes, acid group can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules

4

what intermolecular forces in carboxylic acids

hydrogen bonds in solid state

5

what are esters

formed from carboxylic acids and alcohols
RCOOR'

6

naming esters

start with the group that has replaced the hydrogen the acid part

7

what physical properties do esters have

volatile, pleasant fruit smells

8

uses of esters

flavourings,
perfumes
solvents
plasticisers

9

common natural esters

fats
oils

10

how could you distinguish carboxylic acids from other OH containing compounds

NaHCO3
acids will produce sodium salt water and carbon dioxide

11

what catalyst is needed for the formation of esters from alcohols and carboxylic acids

concentrated strong acids
H2SO4

12

what catalyst is needed for the hydrolysis of esters

dilute strong acid
H2SO4

13

what is an alternative method of hydrolysis

base hydrolysis

14

what are the advantages of base hydrolysis

reaction goes to completion due to neutralisation by base
more product in the mixture than acid catalyst hydrolysis

15

what is the difference between oil and fat

oils are liquid at room temp
fats are solid that are usually saturated

16

how do you make biodiesel

NaOH catalyst
lipids + 3CH3Oh -> 3 methyl esters + glycerol

17

what does transesterification mean

converting one type of ester to another

18

how is the reaction mixture of biodiesel purified and separated

settling tank or centrifuge- remove remainder with water
add acid to neutralise excess alkali catalyst
solid soap is formed

19

what is the problem with producing biodiesel

crops that could be used to make food are being used to make fuel

20

what are carboxylic acid derivatives

molecules that have the acyl group as part of their structure
formed from carboxylic acids

21

name two acid derivatives and give their functional groups

acyl chlorides RCOCL
acid anhydrides RCOOCR

22

which factors determine how readily the acylation of a nucleophile by an acid derivative occurs

magnitude of the delta + charge on the carbonyl carbon
how easily the atom being substituted is lost
how good the nucleophile is

23

what effect does the Cl and O in AC\AA have on the partial charge of the carbonyl carbon

increases the partial + charge by attracting electrons, this means that they react more readily with nucleophiles

24

are more AC or AA more reactive

AC

25

what is the name of the mechanism by which Ac and AA nucleophiles

addition-elimination

26

if the nucleophile is ammonia for the acylation of AC or AA what are the products

an amide

27

if the nucleophile is a primary amine, what are the products of the acylation of AC or AA

N-substituted amide

28

if the nucleophile is an alcohol, what are the products of the acylation of Ac or AA

ester

29

if the nucleophile is water, what are the products of the acylation of AC or AA

carboxylic acid

30

what is a commercially important acylation reaction

manufacture of asprin