Flashcards in Alexander II - Reforms Deck (19):
What were Alexander II's motives for reform?
Serf uprisings, impact of the Crimean War and economic motives.
When was the Emancipation edict and what did it
1861 - granted serfs freedom and an allotment of land, landowners received compensation. Serfs had to pay redemption fees for 49 years.
Advantages of the Emancipation edict.
Some peasants did well - the Kulaks. Some found industrial work. Landowners used money to get out of debt
Disadvantages of Emancipation edict.
Land allocations were rare. Had to pay redemption fees. Backwards farming methods. Landowners resented loss of influence.
When were the Military reforms and what did they
1874/75 - smaller, more professional, less expensive army. Conscription for all classes, only 15 years. Better medical care. Military colleges set up.
Advantages of the Military reforms.
Better weapons, better training meant better performance, literacy improved.
Disadvantages of the Military reforms.
The rich found substitutes. Officer class mainly aristocratic. Struggled to win war with Turkey.
When were the Local Government reforms and what did they involve?
1864/70 - System of elected councils (zemstva), chosen through electoral colleges. Power to improves public services and develop industrial projects.
Advantages of the Local Government reforms.
Raised hope of intelligentsia who wanted a representative National Assembly. People who knew what the community needed.
Disadvantages of the Local Government reforms.
Attracted people who debated political issues. Power they had was limited - officials could overturn decisions.
When were the Judiciary reforms and what did they
1864 - Introduced juries, lawyers and examination of the witness. Equality before the law. Judges trained and paid. Courts open to the public and could be reported.
Advantages of the Judiciary reforms.
System was fairer and less corrupt.
Disadvantages of the Judiciary reforms.
Used courts to criticize the regime. Juries acquitted the guilty because the sympathize with them. Reforms did not apply in military courts.
When were the Education reforms and what did they involve?
1863/64 - Universities govern themselves - could appoint own staff. Zemstva in control of schooling. Schools declared 'open to all'.
Advantages of the Education reforms.
Educational provision grew. Number of schools rose.
Disadvantages of the Education reforms.
Increased number of radical thinkers. Curriculum still restricted.
When were the Censorship reforms and what did they
1858/70 - Reduced restrictions on publishers. Foreign publications allowed. Press could publish comments on government policy.
Advantages of the Censorship reforms.
More books published. More freedom of speech in the press.