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Flashcards in Russification Deck (14):

What does Russification mean?

Forcing everyone in Russia to think of themselves as 'Russian' by enforcing Russian culture and language.


Why was Russification necessary?

Over 100 different ethnic groups. National identity was important.


What was the problem of Ethnic Minorities?

Third of the population had different nationalities. Challenge for Tsarist autocracy.


How did Alexander II enforce Russification?

1863 - Polish rebellion, guerrilla warfare against the Tsar. Did not systematically persecute. Made concessions. Increased intolerance: 1876 - prohibition on Ukrainian language.


How did Alexander III enforce Russification?

A more aggressive campaign. Destruction of non-Russian culture.


What did Alexander III impose in European Russia?

Use of Russian language. Suppressed uprisings.


What did Alexander III impose in Poland?

Teaching subjects in Russian. 1885 - Polish National Bank closed. Catholic monasteries closed.


What did Alexander III impose in Finland?

Use of Russian Language. Parliament reorganized to be weaken political influence. Independent postal service abolished.


What did Alexander III impose in the Baltic Provinces?

Enforce the Russian language (1885/89). 37,000 Lutherans converted to Orthodoxy.


What did Alexnder III impose in Ukraine?

1883 - use of Ukranian language restricted, 1884 - Ukranian theatres closed. Military dispersed to prevent uprisings.


What did Alexnder III impose in Aisain Russia?

All Russian Orthodox converted heathens and Muslims. 1883 - members of non- Orthodox churches could be exiled.


What were the consequences of Russification?

Caused resistance, mass disturbances and resentment. Intensified feelings from non-Russians and enouraged them to join political opposition groups.


What was anti-semitism like in Russia??

Jews were confined to the Pal of Settlement. People resented Jews because of teachings of the Orthodox church and their personal riches Alexander III was ati-semitic


What were the Jewish pogroms (1881 - 664)

Jews were concentrated in one area - a target. Causes could be: Business competition and encouraged by the Okhrana, Government did little to stop the violence. Jewish property destroyed. 1882 - Jews had to live in ghettos.