Economic Developments, 1855-94 Flashcards Preview

Tsarist and Communist Russia > Economic Developments, 1855-94 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Economic Developments, 1855-94 Deck (13):
1

What reforms did Reutern bring into industry?

- Boost economy.
- Treasury reformed.
- Tax farming abolished. Increased indirect taxation.
- Banks extended.
- Reduced import duties - increased trade.
- Foreign investment encouraged.

2

What were the advantages of Reutern's reforms?

- Tax farmers invested elsewhere.
- More opportunities.
- Trade encouraged enterprise.
- Expansion industrially. Oil extraction began. Coal mining set up.

3

What were the disadvantages of Reutern's reforms?

Economy remained weak. Expenditure mainly on paying debts back. Emancipation Edict left peasants poor.

4

What reforms did Vyshnegradsky bring into industry?

- Raised tariffs (1880s).
- Prohibitive import tariff - encourage home production.
- Helped iron industry.
- Negotiated loans.
- Increased indirect taxes.
- Drive in exporting grain.

5

What were the advantages of Vyshnegradsky's reforms?

Helped the iron industry, Developed industrial machinery. Grain exports increased - 18%. Russian budget in surplus.

6

What were the disadvantages of Vyshnegradsky's reforms?

Grain drive at expense of peasants. Left with no grain reserves. Great famine 1891-92

7

What reforms did Witte bring into industry?

- Protective tariffs.
- Heavy taxation.
- Forced exports.
- Loans to fund mining, metal trades, oil and banking.
- Encouraged workers from Britain, France and Germany.
- Expansion of the railway.

8

What were the advantages of Witte's reforms?

Russia's rate of growth helped them become the 4th largest industrial economy by 1897. Increased Russian exports and foreign trade.

9

What were the changes to agriculture?

- Emancipation failed to bring changes.
- Peasants were poor.
- Change hampered by high taxes and grain
requisitions.
- Yields were low.
- Land banks - increased debt.
- Development of Kulaks.

10

What were the positive changes in agriculture?

Overall production did increase.

11

What were the negative changes in agriculture?

Famine - revealed economic problems. Peasants were poor and didn't have enough land. Backwards farming methods.

12

Between what years were Reuterns reforms?

1862 - 1887

13

Between what years were Vyshnegradskys reforms?

1887 - 1892