Flashcards in Economic Developments, 1855-94 Deck (13):
What reforms did Reutern bring into industry?
- Boost economy.
- Treasury reformed.
- Tax farming abolished. Increased indirect taxation.
- Banks extended.
- Reduced import duties - increased trade.
- Foreign investment encouraged.
What were the advantages of Reutern's reforms?
- Tax farmers invested elsewhere.
- More opportunities.
- Trade encouraged enterprise.
- Expansion industrially. Oil extraction began. Coal mining set up.
What were the disadvantages of Reutern's reforms?
Economy remained weak. Expenditure mainly on paying debts back. Emancipation Edict left peasants poor.
What reforms did Vyshnegradsky bring into industry?
- Raised tariffs (1880s).
- Prohibitive import tariff - encourage home production.
- Helped iron industry.
- Negotiated loans.
- Increased indirect taxes.
- Drive in exporting grain.
What were the advantages of Vyshnegradsky's reforms?
Helped the iron industry, Developed industrial machinery. Grain exports increased - 18%. Russian budget in surplus.
What were the disadvantages of Vyshnegradsky's reforms?
Grain drive at expense of peasants. Left with no grain reserves. Great famine 1891-92
What reforms did Witte bring into industry?
- Protective tariffs.
- Heavy taxation.
- Forced exports.
- Loans to fund mining, metal trades, oil and banking.
- Encouraged workers from Britain, France and Germany.
- Expansion of the railway.
What were the advantages of Witte's reforms?
Russia's rate of growth helped them become the 4th largest industrial economy by 1897. Increased Russian exports and foreign trade.
What were the changes to agriculture?
- Emancipation failed to bring changes.
- Peasants were poor.
- Change hampered by high taxes and grain
- Yields were low.
- Land banks - increased debt.
- Development of Kulaks.
What were the positive changes in agriculture?
Overall production did increase.
What were the negative changes in agriculture?
Famine - revealed economic problems. Peasants were poor and didn't have enough land. Backwards farming methods.
Between what years were Reuterns reforms?
1862 - 1887