Economic Developments, 1855-94 Flashcards Preview

Tsarist and Communist Russia > Economic Developments, 1855-94 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Economic Developments, 1855-94 Deck (11):
1

What reforms did Reutern bring into industry?

Boost economy. Treasury reformed. Tax farming abolished. Increased indirect taxation. Banks extended. Reduced import duties - increased trade. Foreign investment encouraged.

2

What were the advantages of Reutern's reforms?

Tax farmers invested elsewhere. More opportunities. Trade encouraged enterprise. Expansion industrially. Oil extraction began. Coal mining set up.

3

What were the disadvantages of Reutern's reforms?

Economy remained weak. Expenditure mainly on paying debts back. Emancipation Edict left peasants poor.

4

What reforms did Vyshnegradsky bring into industry?

Raised tariffs (1880s). Prohibitive import tariff - encourage home production. Helped iron industry. Negotiated loans. Increased indirect taxes. Drive in exporting grain.

5

What were the advantages of Vyshnegradsky's reforms?

Helped the iron industry, Developed industrial machinery. Grain exports increased - 18%. Russian budget in surplus.

6

What were the disadvantages of Vyshnegradsky's reforms?

Grain drive at expense of peasants. Left with no grain reserves. Great famine 1891-92

7

What reforms did Witte bring into industry?

Protective tariffs. Heavy taxation. Forced exports. Loans - fun mining, metal trades, oil and banking. Encouraged workers from Britain, France and Germany. Expansion of the railway.

8

What were the advantages of Witte's reforms?

Russia's rate of growth helped them become the 4th largest industrial economy by 1897. Increased Russian exports and foreign trade.

9

What were the changes to agriculture?

Emancipation failed to bring changes. Peasants were poor. Change hampered by high taxes and grain requositions. Yields were low. Land banks - increased debt. Development of Kulaks.

10

What were the positive changes in agriculture?

Overall production did increase.

11

What were the negative changes in agriculture?

Famine - revealed economic problems. Peasants were poor and didn't have enough land. Backwards farming methods.