# Alignment Flashcards

1
Q

What is another term for Offset Misalignement?

A

Parallel Misalignment

2
Q

What is not a concern when using the cross dialing method of shaft alignment.

A

Coupling Eccentricity

3
Q

What is the name of the condition where all the supporting feet of a machine do not equally support the weight of the machine?

A

Soft Foot

4
Q

Describe how the dial indicator hand moves when the plunger is pushed inwards?

A

5
Q

What are the two misalignment conditions?

A

Angular and offset.

6
Q

What is done to correct vertical offset misalignmenet?

A

Add or remove equal shims on the drive.

7
Q

What would you use to rough align prior to using a laser for alignment?

A

Straight edge and feeler gauges.

8
Q

What is TIR?

A

9
Q

How is vertical angular misalignment corrected?

A

By placing an unequal amount of shims front and rear.

10
Q

What is another term for angular misalignment?

A

Face misalignment

11
Q

What is the purpose of this equation?

A

Calculate a shim change.

12
Q

Which describes runout?

A

An eccentric condition.

13
Q

Which is corrected first Horizontal Alignment or Vertical Alignment?

A

Vertical Alignment.

14
Q

What is used to adjust Horizontal Alignment?

A

JackScrews (Alignment Screws)

15
Q

What is this?

A

The side bolt is a Jackscrew

16
Q

What is Rim Misalignment?

A

The same as Offset Misalignment or Parallel Misalignment

17
Q

What is one way to test for Softfoot?

A

Loosen the anchor bolts one at a time and try to slide a feeler gauge underneithe the feet.

18
Q

What are two types of soft foot?

A

Angular and Ordinary

19
Q

What is ordinary softfoot?

A

The amount of even gap between one foot of a machine and the baseplate or soleplate.

20
Q

What is Angular Softfoot?

A

A uneven gap between a machine foot and the baseplate or soleplate

21
Q

What should the gap between foot and shim pack be?

A

Less than 0.025mm (0.001”)

22
Q

What do you have to be mindful of with Steam Turbine shaft alignment?

What do you do to remedy this?

A
• Thermal Expansion
• Set the Turbine shaft (shaft that will expand) lower than the driven.
23
Q

What is one method of testing coupling alignment?

A

Vibration Analysis

24
Q

What are the Four methods of coupling alignment?

A
• Rough Alignment using straight edge and feeler gauges
• Rim and Face dialing
• Cross Dialing
• Laser
25
Q

What are two sub methods of Cross Dialing?

A
• Graph Method
26
Q

How are shims differentiated ?

A

By square dimension (A, B, C, D) and thickness.

27
Q

What are Classes A -D dimensions?

A
28
Q

How many shims should you use at most per foot?

A

3

29
Q

What order should you stack shims idealy?

A

Thickest on the bottom, second thickest on the top and smallest sandwhiched between then.

30
Q

You should not be able to ______ shims when bolts are tightened down.

A

Move

31
Q

“Always ______ the jackscrews before _____ the hold down blots.

A

Back off

Tightening

32
Q

What is TIR

A

Total Indicator Reading: the total difference in reading from top to bottom. ( 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock )

33
Q

When doing Vertical or Horizontal TIR what is a must for the mathimatical readings.

A

The 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock added together must equal 3 o’clock and 9 o’clock sum.

34
Q

Vertical TIR is 3 o’clock and 9 o’clock sum.

True or False?

A

False

It is Horizontal TIR

35
Q

What is Run-out?

What must be done with the TIR value?

A
• When the dial and shaft are rotated 180 and there is a slight bent in the shaft.
• TIR must be halfed to get the runout.
36
Q

Do you check Runout for Rim and Face?

A

Yes

37
Q

How do you check for Indicator Sag?

A

Start the dial on at the 6 o’clock position then zero it. Then rotate it to 12 o’clock position. If the value is positive divide by 2 and that is your dial sag.

38
Q

What do dial sag corrections only apply to?

A

39
Q

What are two types of Runout?

A

Eccentric and Angular

40
Q

What kind of runout is this?

A

Eccentric Runout

41
Q

What kind of Runout is this?

A

Angular Runout

42
Q

What is the equation for calculating shim correction with Angular Misalignment in the vertical dimension.

A

A/D x Feeler Calculation = Back Shim Change

B/D x Feeler Calculation = Front Shim Change

A and B are measured from center of the hold down bolt to the face.

43
Q

What kind of alignment is this?

A

Correcting for Horizontal Misalignment

44
Q

When do you use Rim and Face Alignment?

A

When Rough Alignment is not accurate enough.

45
Q

When can you not use Rim and Face Alignment?

A

When there is Axial Float of shafts and it can’t be stablized.

46
Q

What type of Alignment method is this?

A

Coupled Rim and Face Alignment

47
Q

What kind of Alignment method is this?

A

Uncouple Rim and Face Alignment

48
Q

What is an Advantage with Rim and Face Alignment?

A

Can be used on large diameter shafts where only one shaft rotates.

49
Q

What are the limitations with Rim and Face Alignment?

A
• Errors may occur due to eccentricity of the coupling or shaft.
• If used on shafts with friction bearings in either driver or driven machinery, the end-float that may be difficult to stablize.
50
Q

What is this called and what is it used for?

A

A wiggler. Used to enable face readings.

51
Q

When calculating Face Misalignment what diameter do you use?

A

The diameter of the total change in position of the wriggler end. From 12 o’clock to 6 o’clock.

52
Q

Which do you do first in Alignment Horizontal or Vertical?

A

Vertical

53
Q

Which do you do first in Alignment Angular or Offset?

A

Angular

54
Q

What is the order of Misalignment correction?

A

(VA) Vertical Angular Alignment
(VO) Vertical Offset Alignment
(HA) Horizontal Angular Alignment
(HO) Horizontal Offset Alginment

55
Q

Where are the datums taken for Rim calculations?

A

L1: From the center of both front driver feet

L2 : From the center of both back driver feet

56
Q

What do you use this calculation for?

A

For Rim and Face Reading from the Driver Side and Uncoupled Shim Calculations

57
Q

When the Rim and Face dials are set up from the driver side and reading the driven coupling rim and inside face a positive means what?

What does a Negative mean?

A
• Insert Shim
• Remove Shim
58
Q

When the Rim and Face dials are set up from the driven side and reading the driver coupling rim and outside face a positive means what?

What does a Negative mena?

A
• Remove Shims
• Insert Shims
59
Q

What type of Alignment method is this?

A

60
Q

What must you do before a Cross Dial Alignment?

A

Rough Alignment

61
Q

What is a dial indicator Becket?

A

The support found behind the dial head connected to the magnetic base.

62
Q

What type of Alignment is this?

What is used with it?

A
• Cross Dial Gragh Alignment
• A gragh
63
Q

What does Axial float specifically affect in Alignment?

A

Face Alignment

64
Q

Why is Cross Dialling not affected by axial float.

A

It does not require Face dials

65
Q

What are the benefits of Cross Dialling Misalignment?

A
• Axial Float does not affect the alignment process.
• Coupling Eccentricity does not affect alignment process. Both shaft rotate at the same time.
• Greater Accuracy
• Couplings dont need dismantaling for alignment.
66
Q

Do both shafts need to be rotated with Cross Dialling Alignment?

A

Yes

67
Q

At what length do Cross Dials lose accuracy.

A

Anything less than 4 inches.

68
Q

What is the first step for Cross Dial Alignment?

A

Set both dial indicators to the pre-determined sag plus values.

69
Q

Where is Sag correction for alignment not nessesary?

A

70
Q

What pattern do you use for tightening/torquing down hold down bolts?

A

X pattern

71
Q

How many Dowels should be used for alignment maintainment during operation?

A

2 for each machine which should be as far apart as possible (diagonally).

72
Q

Does heat affect Laser Alignment?

A

Yes, it affects the lasers accuracy.

73
Q

Does Laser Alignment avoid problems with Bar Sag?

A

Yes

74
Q

What is a Class 1 laser for alignment?

What is a Class 2 laser for alignment?

A
• Invisible
• Visible
75
Q

What is this Equation used for?

What is A?

What is B?

What is C?

A

Calculating corrections for Cross Dial Reverse Misalignment .

• A = Distance between contact points of Dial indicators
• B = Distance from dial indicator on driven component to the center of the front hold hole of driver unit.
• C = distance from the dial indicator set on the driven unit to the center of the back hold down holes of the driver unit
76
Q

What is this set up for?

A

Cross Dialling Graph Alignment.

77
Q

For Cross Dialling Reverse Reading what does a plus mean for calculating shim change?

A

Insert Shims (vertical movement) and push the driver leg towards the 9 o’clock position (horizontal movement).

Remove shims (VM) and push the driver leg towards 3 o’clock (HM).

78
Q

Are the dials for Reverse Cross Dialling on the same plane or opposite?

A

Same