Flashcards in Alkanes Deck (39):
What words (sentence) do we use to remember the names of the Alkanes in order?
My (Methane), elephant (Ethane), prefers (propane), bananas (Butane), peeled (pentane).
What is the general formulae for an Alkanes ?
Alkanes are an .......series?
Homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons.
Homologous series is a series if compounds which; (4)
-have the same general formula
-have the same chemical properties
-have the same physical properties which increase up the series
-differ from their nearest neighbour in molecular formula by a constant amount, CH2
What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound made up of carbon and Hydrogen only.
What is the definition of Saturated?
Only contains single bonds
What does the boiling point do as the carbon chain increases?
All Alkanes burn in excess oxygen to form.....? (2 substances)
Carbon dioxide and Water
What is a STRUCTURAL ISOMERISM?
2 or more compounds which have
- the same molecular formula
-different structural formula
When Alkanes burn in excess of oxygen they give out large amounts of HEAT ENERGY hence they make good fuels.
What are the products of the combustion of Alkanes?
What is the equation for the combustion of Alkanes?
What are the observations when Alkanes react with halogens?
-2 layers form
-orange layer SLOWLY goes colourless
What is the equation for complete combustion?
Alkanes (Hydrocarbon)+excess oxygen= carbon dioxide + water
If there is a LIMITED SUPPLY OF EXYGEN what is the equation for the complete combustion?
Alkanes+limited supply if oxygen = carbon monoxide +water
What three words go with CARBON MONOXIDE that all end in 's'...!!!!!!
In which 3 scenarios does INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION take place?
-boiler in a poorly ventilated situation
-Calourgas heater in a poorly ventilated room
What is the equation for cracking?!!!!
Long chain alkane >short chain+alkene. Catalyst
What are Alkanes used for
What are short chain Alkanes used for?
Used as fuels
What fractions are usually cracked?
Long chain or medium chain hydrocarbons
What are polymers?
Long chain molecules which are mad when small molecules Called Momomers are added together.
Unsaturated Alkanes with carbon-carbon double bonds can act as....??
When monomers are heated up with an "initiator" and put under high pressure what happens to form a polymer?
The double bonds open up to form a very long chain of single bonded carbon atoms. ADDITION POLYMERISATION
What is the repeating pattern if atoms along the polymer chain called?
What do the properties of the polymer depend upon? (3)
-The monomer it's made from
-The conditions it's made under
-Whether or not it has cross links
Whey comes as a result of polymer chains not all being the same length?
It's physical properties are more of mixture.
How many isomers does propene have?
What are the properties of polyethene/ethene? (4)
-low density form LDPE
-Very flexible light but not very strong
-high density form HDPE
-Light and strong/more ridged
Uses of Ethene/polyethene? (2)
-plastic shopping bags
-drink Bottles, Buckets and Bowls
What are the properties of propene/polypropene? (1)
Very tough and strong
What uses does propene/polypropene have? (3)
What are the properties of chloroethene (vinyl chloride)/polychloroethene (PVC)? (2)
-Ridged and very waterproof
-very resistant to chemicals
What are the uses of chloroethene (vinyl chloride)/polychloroethene (PVC)? (2)
-gutters bad drain pipes
-insulating coating for electrical wires
What are the properties of phenylethene (styrene)/polystyrene (PS)? (1)
Hard and brittle but can be expanded with gas
What are the uses of phenylethene (styrene)/polystyrene (PS)? (4)
-fast food cartons
What's a monomer?
Small molecule with a double bond
What does UNSATURATED mean?
A compound contains a DOUBKE BOND.