ALL THINGS BREAST- FINAL Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ALL THINGS BREAST- FINAL Deck (56)
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1

Amastia

breast tissue, nipple and aureola are absent

2

Amazia

mammary gland tissue is absent but the nipple and aureola remain present

3

Athelia

presence of breast glandular tissue but no nipple or areola

4

Supernumerary nipple

more than one nipple
occurs most often along the milk line (extends from the axilla to the groin)

5

Supernumerary breast tissue

presence of breast tissue in an ectopic location
occurs most often along the milk line (extends from the axilla to the groin)

6

Can ectopic breast tissue be pathologic?

Yes. This supernumerary breast tissue can undergo the same pathologic changes as normal breast tissue (benign cystic changes, benign breast tumors, and breast cancer)

7

Inverted nipple

The new onset of nipple inversion is a sign that requires a work-up to rule out underlying breast cancer

8

Inverted nipple is usu caused by_______

fibrous bands of tissue that tether the nipple in an inverted position

9

Galactorrhea is__________

the spontaneous flow of milky nipple d/c that occurs in the absence of childbirth or lactation

10

Galactorrhea is commonly due to

hormonal dysregulation or as a side effect of several medications such as oral contraceptives

11

The presence of galactorrhea is the most disconcerting when____________

the d/c is unilateral, bloody or when there is an associated mass

12

Mastitis is___________

the non-infectious inflammation of the parenchyma of the mammary gland

13

If mastitis occurs in lactating women (as it most often does), then condition is called__________

puerperal mastitis

14

If mastitis occurs in non-lactating women or if it occurs in men it's called_________

non-puerperal mastitis

15

If the cause of mastitis is infectious (less common), it is most likely due to________

Staph aureus or Strep epidermitis

16

Where does peri-ductal mastitis usually occur?

sub-areolar area with overlying skin erythema

17

What population does peri-ductal mastitis usually occur in?

smokers (90%)

18

The microscopic morphology of peri–ductal mastitis usually reveals_________

keratinizing squamous epithelium in the duct system of the nipple which often extends to an abnormal depth

19

A chronic _________ response is characteristically noted in peri-ductal mastitis?

granulomatous inflammatory

20

condition that is characterized by the dilatation of the sub-areolar ducts is called_____________

Mammary duct ectasia

21

Mammary duct ectasia is more often see in__________

multiparous women

22

What sequelae is seen in 30-40% of cases of mammary duct ectasia?

nipple inversion

23

In mammary duct ectasia, microscopically one sees_________

dilated lactiferous ducts that are filled with granular debris including lipid laden macrophages.
Peri-ductal and interductal inflammation is notable as characterized by infiltrates of lymphocytes and macrophages with an increased number of plasma cells

24

early lesion of mammary duct ectasia is characterized by

the accumulation of foamy macrophages beneath the luminal duct epithelium

25

Fibrocystic breast disease is a condition characterized by____

fibrous lumps and cords in the breast tissue that are non-cancerous
fibrocystic breast changes may be asx or they may cause discomfort

26

What disease represents the singe most common disorder of the breast?

Fibrocystic breast disease!
It accounts for more than half of all surgical operations that are performed on the female breast

27

Where are fibrocystic breast changes most often found?

upper outer quadrant!

28

Microscopic appearance of fibrocystic breast disease

multi-layering of the ductal cells or noting the in-growth of these cells towards the center of the duct (layering starts to compromise the ductal space)

29

Fat necrosis results from____________

the rupture of adipocytes and hemorrhage from broken blood vessels into the traumatized area
calcification and hemosiderin deposition occurs within the affected area

30

Mammography (or US) of an area of fat necrosis often reveals

a central radiolucent area of fat with increased density and/or presence of calcifications at the fat periphery