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Flashcards in ALL THINGS CARDIO- FINAL Deck (51)
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1

What's the first sign of atherosclerosis that's visible without magnification?

fatty streaks
A fatty streak consists of lipid-containing foam cells in the arterial wall just beneath the endothelium

2

what develops on the second third or fourth day following a transmural myocardial infarction?

A fibrinous or fibrino-hemorrhagic pericarditis
Pericarditis following myocardial infarction usually resolves over time with no serious consequence or sequelae

3

what is the form of pericarditis that occurs weeks to months after injury to the heart or the pericardium?

Dressler's syndrome

4

what is the predominant cause of renal artery stenosis, usu in those with acute onset of hypertension 50 years or older?

Atherosclerosis

5

what is the predominant cause of renal artery stenosis, usu in those with acute onset of hypertension 40 years old and female?

Fibromuscular dysplasia

6

__________ and ________are vessels in which aneurysm development has the greatest potential for increased morbidity and mortality

aorta
the circle of Willis

7

someone with a Berry Aneurysm might say?

"this is the worse h/a ever"

8

dissection usually occurs through which layers?

medial tissue layer of the aorta
blood penetrates the intima and enters the media

9

aneurysm usually refers to?

the “ballooning out” of a vessel wall due to underlying weakness of the wall and/ or the force of increased blood pressure.

10

Marfan's syndrome is a genetic connective tissue disorder that results from abnormal production of what?

fibrillin-1 protein

11

histologically, Marfan's syndrome demonstrates_________

cystic medial necrosis, where pink elastic fibers, instead of running in parallel arrays, are disrupted by pools of blue mucinous ground substance.

12

Another cause of cystic medial necrosis (besides Marfan's syndrome) is_________

copper deficiency

13

what is the name of the pathology that originates in the lungs and leads to CHF?

cor pulmonale

14

3 major categories of cardiomyopathy are?

dilated (most common)
hypertrophic
restrictive

15

dilated cardiomyopathy is characterized by

enlargement and dilatation of all four chambers of the heart
most common non-ischemic cause is alcoholism

16

Histology of dilated cardiomyopathy reveals

nonspecific abnormalities, including variations in myocyte size, myocyte vacuolation, loss of myofibrillar material, and fibrosis

17

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by

myocardial hypertrophy, abnormal diastolic filling (due to reduce chamber size) and in about one third of cases, intermittent ventricular outflow obstruction (due to bulging septum)
its genetic

18

Histology of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy reveals

hypertrophy of myocardial fibers (which also have prominent dark nuclei) along with interstitial
fibrosis.

19

restrictive cardiomyopathy is characterized by

cardiomyopathy infiltrated by abnormal tissue that results in impaired contractility

20

The most common causes of restrictive cardiomyopathy are

amyloidosis and hemochromatosis

21

histology of restrictive cardiomyopathy demonstrates

amorphous deposits of pale pink material between myocardial fibers. This is characteristic for amyloid.

22

Endocarditis generally refers to inflammation on the

valves

23

The vegetations of infectious endocarditis are

collections of infected thrombotic debris deposited on and around the affected valve

24

Microscopic view of valve in patient with infectious
endocarditis demonstrates

friable vegetations of fibrin and platelets mixed with inflammatory cells and bacterial colonies

25

Organisms commonly associated with community-acquired endocarditis include

Staphylococcus aureus (30-50%, minority MRSA)
Alpha-hemolytic Strep (S. viridans) (10-35%)
Enterococci (5-10%)
Culture negative (5-30%)
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Misc. organisms including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Corynebacterium (<5%)

26

Organisms commonly associated with nosocomial endocarditis include

Staph. aureus (60-80%; majority MRSA)
Alpha hemolytic streptococci (<5%)
Misc. others including: E coli, Klebsiella, Corynebacterium; 5-10%)

27

Portals of entry for organisms that may cause endocarditis include but are not limited to:

Poor dental health, dental procedures or pharyngeal infection
Genitourinary infections and instrumentation of the GU tract
Skin infections such as impetigo
Pulmonary infections
IV drug use

28

acute endocarditis vs subacute endocartiditis

acute - virulent bug
subacute- not that virulent, already damaged valve

29

subacute endocarditis has systemic sx such as

petechiae in such areas as the mouth or under the tongue, the finger nail beds (called splinter hemorrhages) or Microemboli in to the retina (known as Roth’s spots)

30

risk factors for endocarditis are

RF - used to be leading cause
Patients with artificial valves
Immunocompromised patients
IV drug abusers
Alcoholics
Patients with indwelling catheters
Patients with vascular grafts