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Flashcards in ALL THINGS GUT- FINAL Deck (41)
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1

different types of esophageal motility disorders

Achalasia
diffuse esophageal spasm
nutcracker esophagus
hypertensive lower esophageal spasm

2

Achalasia is characterized by

increased tone and pressure at the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), diminished to absent peristalsis in the distal portion of the esophagus and lack of a coordinated LES relaxation in response to swallowing

3

characteristic finding in achalasia following barium swallow is

"bird's beak" appearance

4

the underlying pathophysiology that results in achalasia is

lymphocytic infiltration of Auerbach’s plexus and destruction of ganglion cells

5

Diffuse esophageal spasm is characterized by

uncoordinated contractions and several segments of the esophagus contract simultaneously

6

Nutcracker esophagus is characterized by

contractions proceed in a coordinated manner but the amplitude is excessive

7

barium swallow findings for nutcracker esophagus

corkscrew esophagus

8

Mallory–Weiss tears refers to bleeding in the

mucosa at the junction of the stomach and esophagus,
The tear involves mucosa and submucosa but not the muscular layer (not a transmural tear).

9

Boerhaave's syndrome is a

full thickness tear or rupture of the esophageal wall

10

Barrett's esophagus is characterized by

transformation of cells at the lower end of the esophagus from normal squamous epithelium lining to columnar epithelium.
Micrograph of biopsy showing Barrett's esophagus with characteristic goblet cells

11

Hirshsprung’s disease is a disorder of the gut which is caused by

the failure of the neural crest cells (enteric ganglion cells) to migrate completely during fetal development of the intestine
Auerbach plexus involvement

12

___________ is suspected in a baby who has not passed meconium within 48 hours of delivery.

Hirshsprung's disease

13

Intestinal volvulus is defined as

a complete twisting of a loop of intestine around its mesenteric attachment site.

14

An intussusception occurs when

a part of the intestine has migrated into another section of intestine, similar to the way in which the parts of a collapsible telescope may slide into one another

15

Celiac disease small intestine changes

There is blunting and flattening of villi with celiac disease, and in severe cases a loss of villi with flattening of the mucosa as seen here. Over 95% of affected patients will express the DQw2 histocompatibility antigen, which suggests a genetic basis for the condition

16

Crohn's vs Ulcerative Colitis in terms of location

Crohns- anywhere from mouth to anus
UC- restricted rectum and colon

17

Microscopic findings of Crohn's vs Ulcerative Colitis

Crohn's- transmural lesions
UC- mucosal involvement, crypt abscess

18

is Crohn's or ulcerative colitis associated with increased risk of adenocarcinoma?

Ulcerative Colitis!!!!

19

Across all age groups, what's the most common cause of viral enteritis?

Norwalk virus

20

Amongst children and infants what's the most common cause of viral enteritis (diarrhea)?

Rotavirus

21

What are the most common causes of food-borne illnesses world wide?

Norovirus- #1 cause
Salmonella- #1 cause in infants
Clostridium perfringens
Campylobacter- #1 cause of bloody diarrhea

22

what's associated with 'picnic food poisoning'?

Staph aureus

23

what's associated with contaminated meat or rice from chinese restaurants?

Bacillus cereus

24

what's associated with contaminated shellfish?

Vibrio (cholera and non-cholera)

25

what's associated with improperly home canned fruits and veggies?

Clostridium botulinum

26

a cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD)? AKA pseudomembranous enterocolitis

Clostridium difficile

27

Benign small bowel tumors

Hyperplastic polyps
Adenomas
Leiomyomas- only one he talks about
Lipomas
Hamartomas

28

Histologic findings of leiomyoma

the elongated spindle cells containing cigar-shaped nuclei and no evidence of increased mitotic activity is seen.

29

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by

mucocutaneous pigmentation (i.e. lesions on the face, lips, and buccal mucosa) and benign GI hamartomas.

30

Histologically the Peutz-Jeghers lesions appear

frond-like appearance

31

the most common type of small bowel malignancy in the US is?

adenocarcinma

32

less common types of small bowel malignancies

carcinoid tumors
lymphomas

33

carcinoid tumors

Nests of carcinoid tumor have a typical endocrine appearance with collections of small round cells containing nuclei that are consistent in size and shape and surrounded by cytoplasm which stains pink to pale blue

34

with Juvenile polyposis syndrome (the appearance of mutliple polyps in the GI tract esp in the young) there is an increased risk of developing what?

adenocarcinoma

35

with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (congenital condition marked by hundreds to thousands of polyps in the large intestines) there is an increased risk of developing what?

colon cancer

36

The combination of polyposis, osteomas, fibromas and sebaceous cysts is termed

Gardener's syndrom

37

microscopically neoplastic glands of adenocarcinoma have

crowded nuclei with hyperchromatism and pleomorphism

38

Atrophic gastritis is usually caused by

H. pylori

39

In Atrophic gastritis, impairment in the secretion of hydrochloric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor can lead to

B12 deficiency

40

The characteristic histologic findings of gastric adenocarcinoma is

singlet ring cell pattern

41

carcinoid tumors are a class of neuroendocrine tumors that arise from

neuro-endocrine neoplasms that arise from enterochromaffin cells