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Flashcards in ALL THINGS LIVER- FINAL Deck (33)
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1

The dominant primary diseases of the liver are

Viral hepatitis
Non-viral hepatitis
Alcoholic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver
Hepatocellular carcinoma

2

________ was associated with the diagnosis of yellow fever. However, they have since been found also to be present in other viral hemorrhagic fevers- in particular, acute viral hepatitis

Councilman bodies

3

With continuing fibrosis, the liver is subdivided into nodules of proliferating hepatocytes surrounded by scar tissue.
At this stage, the fibrotic process of the liver may be termed

Cirrhosis

4

Hepatitis A

is a benign, self-limited disease
does not cause chronic hepatitis

5

Hepatitis B

can produce (1) acute hepatitis with resolution, (2) chronic hepatitis, which may evolve to cirrhosis, (3) fulminant hepatitis with massive liver necrosis, and (4) the backdrop for hepatitis D virus infection.

6

Hep B is associated with what really bad thing?

hepatocellular carcinoma.

7

What are the primary risk factors for Hep B?

Transfusion, blood products, dialysis, needle-stick accidents among health care workers, intravenous drug abuse, and sexual activity

8

spread from an infected mother to a neonate during birth (vertical transmission) is common

Hep B

9

the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the U.S

Hep C
Chronicity is the rule rather than the exception

10

Hep D is dependent on which other viral hepatitis?

Hep B

11

the signs and symptoms of hepatitis E resolve over the course of approximately 6 weeks.
The important exception to this is when ___________ are infected by the hepatitis E virus.

pregnant women
can lead to fulminant hepatic necrosis (mortality rates of 15-25%)

12

Additional causes of chronic hepatitis (non-viral causes) are

chronic alcoholism, Wilson’s disease, alpha 1 -antitrypsin deficiency, drugs and other hepatotoxins and various autoimmune diseases

13

The classic ground glass appearance of hepatocytes is associated with

Hep B

14

Causes of cirrhosis

Autoimmune hepatitis,
hepatotoxins (carbon tetrachloride, mushroom poisoning), pharmaceutical drugs (i.e. acetaminophen), and alcohol

15

When hepatic insufficiency progresses from onset of symptoms to __________, it is termed fulminant hepatic failure

hepatic encephalopathy

16

Size of liver in fulminant hepatitis

shrinks and fibrosis

17

Alcohol-induced impaired hepatic metabolism of methionine leads to decreased

intrahepatic glutathione (GSH) levels thus sensitizing the liver to oxidative injury

18

Chronic alcohol consumption has a variety of adverse effects. Of greatest impact are three forms of liver disease:

Hepatic steatosis (fatty liver changes)
Alcoholic hepatitis
Cirrhosis

19

______________ are a characteristic but not specific feature of alcoholic liver disease, as they may also be seen in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), primary biliary cirrhosis, Wilson’s disease and hepatocellular tumors.

Mallory body inclusions

20

Primary biliary cirrhosis (referred to as PBC) is an autoimmune disease in which there is

T cell mediated destruction of the bile ducts of the liver

21

The primary histologic feature of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is

granulomatous destruction of medium sized intrahepatic bile ducts.

22

In primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) there is

segmental stricture and dilatation of bile ducts

23

Approximately 70% of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis are found to have

ulcerative colitis

24

histologically primary sclerosing cholangitis shows

classic onion skin fibrosis

25

with primary sclerosing cholangitis there is an increased risk of what?

cholangiocarcinoma

26

whats the most common type of primary liver cancer?

hepatocellular carcinoma

27

what tends to occur in young women who are on oral contraceptives?

hepatic adenomas

28

histological features of hepatic adenoma

gross-well circumscribed
histo- composed of cords of cells that are somewhat smaller than normal liver cells. The also have less abundant cytoplasm and are less eosinophilic

29

there is a notable relationship between Hep B infection and the development of _________________

hepatocellular carcinoma
in the US the most frequent cause of HCC is cirrhosis due to alcoholism

30

histological changes of hepatocellular carcinoma reveal

loss of normal liver architecture and nuclear atypia