Altered cellular and Tissue Biology Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology > Altered cellular and Tissue Biology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Altered cellular and Tissue Biology Deck (90):
1

Cells that withstand stress and recover completely

Reversible cells injury

2

Cells that change structure in order to adapt to stress

Adaptation

3

Cell death caused by outside stressors

Necrosis

4

Cell triggered suicide

Apoptosis

5

5 types of cell adaption

Atrophy
Hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
Metaplasia
Dysplasia

6

Atrophy that occurs early in development

Physiologic Atrophy

7

Atrophy that occurs with outside stressors

Disuse - not using muscles
Denervation - paralyzed limbs
Ischemia induced - reduced O2 & Nutrients
lack of endocrine - menopause
Nutrient starvation - not eating

8

Increase in the size of the cell due to hormones or physical use

Hypertrophy

9

Types of Hypertrophy

mechanical - stretching a muscle
Trophic - hormones, GF
examples of physiological:
enlargement of uterus in pregnancy
Skeletal muscle when working out
cardiac muscle due to HTN

10

Increased number of number cells due to increased cellular division

Hyperplasia

11

Two types of Hyperplasia

Physiological
Pathological

12

Types of Physiological Hyperplasia

Compensatory - callus formation, liver regeneration
Hormonal - estrogen dependent organs like the breast and uterus

13

types of Pathological hyperplasia

endometrial - excess menstrual bleeding
1 enlarged nucleus
2 clumping of chromatin
3 enlarged nucleoli

14

Increased number of cells in abnormal cells or mature cells

Dysplasia

15

A reversible conversion of a cell shape and type

metaplasia
example - smoking causes ciliated columnar epithelium to stratified squamous epithelium

16

When a cell is unable to maintain homeostasis in face of stimuli

cellular injury

17

Types of cellular injury

reversible cellular injury
irreversible cellular injury

18

Injurious stimuli include

hypoxia
free radicals
chemical agents
infectious agents
physical and mech forces
inflammation (allergic reaction)
genetics
nutritional imbalances
cellular aging

19

6 major biological themes in cell injury/death

ATP depletion - Na/k pumps off
Lack of O2 or free radicals - MOST COMMON
Increased cytoplasmic Ca++ - enzyme turn on
Mitochondrial damage - no ATP
Defects in membrane permeability - increased Ca++

20

Three forms of cellular injury are

Hypoxic
Reactive oxygen
Chemical injury

21

Common causes of hypoxic injuries

decreased P1O2
decreased heart function
decreased RBC's
Respiratory disease
Cardiovascular disease
metabolic inability to use O2 (poisoning)
Ischemia (MOST COMMON)

22

Hypoxic sequelae

decreased O2 into mitochondria -->
decreased ATP --->
No ATP no Na/K pumps --->
^ Na ICF, ^ Ca ICF, ^ K ECF --->
H2O follows Na into cell (hydropic sweeling)>
ER detaches ribosomes --->
no protein synthesis, swelling lysosomes -->
release of enzymes = cell death

23

Irreversible damage is characterized by

major disturbance in the membrane
increased ICF Ca++
Lack of ATP

24

Free radicals either ______ or _____ elctrons

barrow
steal

25

ROS is called

reactive oxygen species

26

ROS are produced where

in the mitochondria

27

Excess ROS leads to

oxidative stress

28

ROS react to the following

fatty acids - peroxidation or membrane lipids
Proteins - ion pump damage
DNA- impaired protein synthesis

29

Free radicals can be initiated within cells by

oxidation reactions - normal metabolism
absorption of radiant energy- UV Xray
Enzymatic metabolism-exogenous chem/drug
Inflammation - leukocytes
Reperfusion energy

30

Four biologically free radicals are

hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
Hydroxyl radical (OH-)
Superoxide
Nitric oxide (NO-)

31

Cells have two methods of removing free radicals

Antioxidant molecules
Antioxidant enzymes

32

Antioxidant molecules are:

Vit E
Vit C
beta carotene

33

Antioxidant Enzymes are

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) >H2O2
glutathione peroxidase > H2O2 --> H2O
Catalase > H2O2 --> H20 + O2

34

Lipid peroxidation _____ electrons in the membrane

steal
leads to destruction of membrane bound organelles

35

Free radicals actions on proteins are

fragmentize polypeptides

36

Free radicals actions on DNA

fragmentize DNA strands

37

When a chemical combines with a molecular component if the cell membrane

direct toxicity

38

Chemical injury sequelae is similar to

hypoxic injury
Ca++ > Na/K off > swelling Mito > cell death

39

The chemical that destroys the rough ER of liver cells is

Carbon tetrachloride

40

Due to carbon tetrachloride Livers become

fatty

41

The chemical that affects the nervous sys, renal sys and hematopoietic is

Lead
hemolysis of RBC --> anemia
interferes with neurotransmitters
causes renal lessons

42

Carbon monoxide causes injury most similar to

hypoxic injury

43

Chemical that causes largely liver damage

Ethanol

44

The ability to produce disease in a host

Pathogenicity

45

Pathogenicity depends on the ability for it to

Invade host and destroy cells
Produce toxins
Produce damaging reactions

46

cellular membranes that are injured by direct contact with cellular or chemical components
(lymphocytes and histamines)

inflammatory injury

47

injurious genetic factors include

cell nucleus altered
plasma membrane structure, shape receptors altered

48

injurious nutrition factors include

insufficient or excessive essential nutrients

49

Injurious physical elements are

Temperature extremes
changes in atmospheric pressure
ionizing radiation (DNA damaged)
Illumination
mechanical stress
noise

50

Instantaneous damage caused by a single wave of sound

Acoustic Trauma

51

hearing loss over a prolonged period of time

Noise-induced hearing loss

52

When mechanical energy to the body results in tearing, shearing or crushing

Blunt force trauma

53

2 types of blunt force trauma are

Blow
impact

54

A blow injury is

when a moving objects strikes the body

55

An impact injury

when a moving body strike a fixed object

56

The two most common types of blunt force trauma

Motor vehicle accidents
falls

57

Bleeding into the skin or underlying tissue due to a blow

contusion
or
hematoma

58

The two types of hematomas are

epidural
subdural

59

Bleeding between the skull and soft tissue underlying is called a

epidural hematoma

60

Bleeding between the dura mater and arachnoid matter would be called a

subdural hematoma

61

Removal of the superficial layer of the skin caused by friction

abrasion

62

a tear of rip of the skin

laceration

63

Broken bones are called

fractures

64

Types of sharp injuries

Incised wound - cut longer than deep
Stab wound - deeper than long
Puncture wound - penetrating wound by sharp pointed object
Chopping wound - made by heavy wedged instruments

65

Types of entrance wounds by gun shot

Contact - point blank
Intermediate - close (gun powder flashing)
Indeterminate - everything else

66

Type of wound when the cells fail to receive O2

Asphyxial injuries

67

Types of asphyxial injuries

Suffocation - lack of o2 or blockage of O2
Strangulation - compression of blood vessels to the brain
Chemical - prevention of delivery or blockage of O2 by a chemical

68

Manifestations of cellular injury

Water - swelling
lipids, CHO - build up in the liver
Glycogen - IC deposits found ECF
Proteins - albumin in urine
Pigments -
Calcium -
Urate -

69

Most common type of glycogen manifestation

Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

70

Brownish yellow spots associated with ageing

Lipofuscin

71

brown-black that block UV light

melanin

72

Two types of hemoglobin derivatives

hemosiderin - excess iron
bilirubin - yellow green in bile
(hyperbilirubinemia occurs with destruction of RBC, causing jaundice and more)

73

Excess calcium activates what

enzymes

74

The enzymes that c++ activates are

Phospholipase - causes membrane damage
Proteases - break down membrane proteins
Endonucleases - DNA fragmentation
ATPase - increase the rate of ATP depletion

75

disorder where extra urate crystals found in tissues that are pain and cause arthritis

Gout

76

Two types of manifestations are

Cellular
Systemic

77

Types of systemic manifestations are

Fever - release of pyrogens
Increased WBC - due to inflammatory
Increased HR - due to ^ metabolic rate
Pain - pressure, various others
Serum elevation of cellular enzymes - enzymes are released through broken membranes

78

The two types of cell death are

Necrosis - passive degenerative process
Apoptosis - programed cell death

79

4 patterns of tissue necrosis are

Coagulative - Cells are dead but tissue remain for a few days (caused by hypoxia)
Liquefactive - Watery break up of cells (bacterial infections)
Caseous - combo of coagulative and liquefactive (Tb)
Gangrenous - large are of cell death

80

Types of gangrenous

Dry - no bacterial
Wet - bacterial infection
Gas - bacterial caused by a clostridium

81

Apoptosis occurs when

DNA damage
accumulation of misfolded proteins
Injury due to infection
After duct obstruction (kidney, pancreas)

82

Two theories of cell aging

wear and tear
intrinsic genetics

83

theories that go along with the wear and tear

somatic mutation
Free radical
immunological

84

Theories that go along with intrinsic genetics

Neuroendocrine
Programmed sentence

85

The most characteristic tissue change with ageing is

tissues gets rigid and stiff

86

The death of an entire organism

Somatic death

87

postmortem decrease in body temp is called

algor mortis

88

Muscles become stiff after death is called

rigor mortis

89

rigor mortis is caused by

Depletion of ATP on Actin and Myosin

90

Blood settling causing the body to turn purple is called

livor mortis