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Flashcards in ANS Deck (54):
1

Two types of nervous systems

CNS
PNS

2

what are the two divisions of the PNS

afferent
efferent

3

Two major division of the efferent peripheral system

Somatic
Autonomic

4

Somatic pathways consist of __ neuron between CNS and effector

1 neuron

5

Somatic neurons normally innervate _____

skeletal muscle

6

Autonomic pathways consist of ____ between CNS and effector

2 neurons

7

ANS innervates ____

smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, GI neurons

8

ANS is activated by ______

spinal cord, brain stem (pons and medulla) and hypothalamus

9

Brainstem is responsible for controlling ____ of the ANS

cardio and respiratory
MAP, HR, respiratory frequency, tidal volume

10

Hypothalamus is responsible for controlling ____ of the ANS

Temperature regulation
water balance
feeding control

11

signals sent to CNS in ganglia that return immediately to the effector organ

reflex

12

examples of reflex are

sweating (thermo)
bladder emptying (water regulation)
smells -> digerstive enzymes (glands)
baroreceptor (MAP)

13

Functions of the ANS included

homeostasis control
4 F's (fighting, fooling around, fleeing or feeding)

14

2 subdivisions of efferent ANS

Sympathetic
Parasympathetic

15

sympathetic system is also called the

thoracolumbar

16

Sympathetic system responses

----responds to stress----
fight or flight
preparing for physical activity

17

Parasympathetic system is also called

craniosacral

18

Parasympathetic system responses

-----conserves energy-----
when not in stressful situation

19

ANS cell bodies are located

outside the CNS

20

Cluster of nerve bodies found outside the CNS

ganglia or ganglion

21

The two neurons in the ANS are called

Preganglionic neurons
Postganglionic neurons

22

sympathetic ganglia lie close to the spinal cord being called ______

sympathetic trunk

23

75% of parasympathetic fibers are located in the _____

vagus nerves

24

acetylcholine (aCh) is released at

ALL preganglionic synapses
and postganglionic synapses in the parasympathetic system
(except sympathetic, sweat glands, piloerector muscles and blood vessels)

25

Most sympathetic postganglionic neurons secrete

norepinephrine

26

neurons that secrete norepinephrine are called

adrenergic

27

aCh is released through

exocytosis

28

aCh is released due to a rise in ____

calcium (intracellular )

29

aCh is hydrolyzed by

acetylcholinesterase

30

A bulbous enlargement of the postganglionic ganglia is called

varicosities

31

removal of neurotransmitters
3 steps

1. reuptake (50%-80%)
2. diffusion out of cleft
3. enzymatic destruction

32

adrenal medulla release _____ directly into the _____

epinephrine and norepinephrine
blood stream

33

cells of the adrenal medulla that release neurotransmitters are called

chromaffin

34

chromaffin cells are like _____

sympathetic Postganglionic neurons (no axons)

35

norepinephrine in the blood stream last _____

5-10 times longer

36

receptor-dependent cells are excited or inhibited by:

1. change in membrane permeability
2. enzyme is activated or inactivated

37

aCh actions on the heart

increase SA node permeability to K
decreasing the heart rate

38

norepinephrine actions on the heart

increase SA node permeability of Na
increase heart rate

39

The two types on ANS receptors

cholinergic (acetylcholine)
Adrenergic (epinephrine or norepinephrine)

40

Two types of cholinergic receptors

muscarinic
nicotinic

41

Muscarinic receptors operate through ___

2nd messenger system
linked to gated K+ channels

42

Nicotinic receptors operate through ____

opening a cation channel

43

cholinergic changes in the body

lower HR
lower atrial contractility
dilate coronary arties
contract smooth muscle (bronchial)

44

Adrenergic receptors are linked to

G-protein linked 2nd messenger

45

Two types of adrenergic receptors are

Alpha
Beta

46

alpha receptors are responsible for

systemic vasoconstriction

47

Beta receptors are responsible for

sympathetic cardiac stimulation
airway dilation

48

effects on receptors by norepinephrine

excites alpha receptors highly
excites beta receptors slightly

49

effects on receptors by epinephrine

excites alpha and beta equally

50

fight or flight term coined by

Walter cannon

51

sympathetic stress response on the body

increased arterial pressure
increased blood flow to active muscles
decreased blood flow to GI tract and kidney
increased cellular metabolic rate
increased blood glucose levels
increased glycolysis in muscles and liver
increase muscle strength (recruitment)
increased mental activity
increased rate of blood coagulation

52

some effector tissues in the ANS are innervated by other means called

non-adrenergic
non-cholinergic
(NANC)

53

Alpha receptor (adrenergic) function

a1 vasoconstriction

54

Beta receptor (adrenergic) function

b1 increased HR
b1 increased force of contraction
b2 bronchodilation
b2 vasodilation