Chapter 2 VOCAB Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 VOCAB Deck (74):
1

DNA nitrogen pyrimidines

Cytosine and Thymine

2

DNA nitrogen purines

Adenine and Guanine

3

DNA is in the shape of _________

Double-helix

4

Proteins are composed of one or more ______

polypeptides

5

Polypeptides are composed of

Amino Acids

6

A group of three nitrogen bases are called a _____

codons

7

Type of bonds between the pairing bases

Hydrogen bonding

8

Complement base pairing are ___ and ___, and ___ and ____

Adenine and Thymine
Guanine and Cytosine

9

The fragmented single strand of DNA is called the ___

template

10

The enzyme responsible for adding the correct nucleotide to the single strand of DNA during DNA replication

DNA polymerase

11

A inherited alteration of genetic material

mutation

12

The mutation where one base pair replaces another

base pair substitution

13

Mutations that have no consequence are called

silent mutations

14

base pair substitution which produces a change in the amino acid

missense mutation

15

base pair substitution which produces a stop codon

nonsense

16

The three stop codons are

UAA, UAG, UGA

17

a mutation that inserts or deletes two or more base pairs of the DNA

Frameshift mutation

18

Outside agents that cause mutations

mutagens

19

mutations with the absence of mutagens are called

spontaneous mutations

20

DNA sequences that are common to have mutations are called

mutation hot spots

21

DNA is short for

deoxyribonucleic acid

22

RNA is short for

ribonucleic acid

23

When RNA is synthesized from DNA

transcription

24

When amino acids are created form RNA

translation

25

Type of RNA that is synthesized from DNA

messenger RNA (mRNA)

26

What enzyme separates DNA during transcription

RNA polymerase

27

RNA polymerase binds on the DNA at the _____ site

promoter site

28

RNA polymerase continues to separates DNA until it reaches a ____

stop codon or
termination sequence

29

The sequences that are removed from mRNA

introns

30

The sequences that remain on mRNA

exons

31

The RNA that carries the amino acid and 3 nucleotides during translation

transfer RNA (tRNA)

32

The places where protein synthesis happens

ribosomes

33

Two types of human cells are

Gametes
somatic cells

34

Gametes consist of

sperm and eggs

35

Somatic cells consist of

all other human cells

36

somatic cells are called ______ consisting or 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs

diploid cells

37

somatic cells are reproduced through

mitosis

38

gamete cells are called _____ because they only contain one chromosome pair (23 chromosomes)

haploid cells

39

haploid cells are formed from diploid cells through

meiosis

40

when two chromosomes are the virtually identical they are called

homologous

41

the 22 homologous pairs of chromosomes are called

autosomes

42

an electronic view of chromosomes lined up in pairs is

karyotype

43

cells with normal numbers of chromosomes are called

euploid cells

44

an euploid cell that has more then the desired number of chromosomes is called

ployploid

45

A zygote that has three copies of EACH chromosome is called

triploid

46

when a CELL does not contain a multiple of 23 chromosomes it is called

aneuploidy

47

when a CELL has three copies of one chromosome it is called

trisomy

48

when sister chromosomes fail to separate and one cell receives both copies it is called

nondisjunction

49

when an extra portion of one chromosome is present in the cell

partial trisomy

50

trisomy of the 21st chromosome

down syndrome

51

only having one copy of a chromosome

monosomy

52

Monosomy of the X chromosome is called

Turner syndrome

53

Indivduals with two X and one Y chromosome (XXY) is called

Klinefelter Syndrome

54

Broken chromosomes and/or broken DNA is called

deletions

55

a repeat of a section of DNA

duplication
(less harmful than deletion)

56

when two breaks occur on a chromosome but the section is put back in, in reverse

inversion

57

interchanging genetic material between two non homologous chromosomes

translocation
reciprocal translocation (if it happens on two different chromosomes)

58

When the long arm of two nonhomologous chromosomes fuse at centromeres, creating a single chromosome

robertsonian translocation

59

the appearance of an individual
(Gene expression)

phenotype

60

composition of genes at a given locus
(Genes make up)

genotype

61

Two different alleles (dominate and recessive)

Heterozygous

62

two of the same alleles (dominate OR recessive)

Homozygote

63

when a heterozygote has the allele but it is not expressed

carrier

64

a chart that expresses dominate and recessive genes

Punnett square

65

a chart that shows disease in a family blood line

pedigree

66

the probability that a person will develop a genetic disease

recurrence risk

67

showing signs and symptoms of an autosomal dominate disorder with no family history is most likely

germline mosaicism

68

the tumor suppressor gene is found on _____ chromosome

long arm of chromosome 13

69

When a nitrogen group is replaced with a methyl group

DNA methylation

70

mating of two related people

consanguinity

71

For female sex hormones X, parts are turned off

X inactivation

72

the theory that X chromosomes are turned off

dosage compensation

73

Cells that of chromosomes that are turned off (only in females)

barr bodies

74

When homologous chromosomes switch entire arms

crossover