American Government in White and Black: Chapters 1-2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in American Government in White and Black: Chapters 1-2 Deck (26)
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1

Government

social institution that controls the people; the political and administrative hierarchy of an organized state. FF: provide security, provide for the public good, services, and managing and resolving conflict.

2

Public good

government policy or action that benefits society as a whole rather than a specific individual. This makes government policies reflect a broad range of interests.

3

Politics

the conflict, competition, and compromise that occur within a political system. CCC baby.

4

Democracy

a system of government in which the people exercise political power.

5

Direct Democracy

democracy in which the people are able to participate directly in the decision making.

6

Indirect Democracy

when the people don't make government decisions themselves, but elect government officials to represent their interests.

7

Constitution

set of formal written rules and principles governing the country/state.

8

Constitutional Democracy

the authority of government stems from their constitution. There are free elections in which candidates compete with each other, the media is free from government control, officials serve a prescribed amount of time.

9

Element of Constitutional Democracy 1

Rule of Law: the idea that laws should take precedence over the arbitrary (based on random choice or personal whim) governance of people.

10

Element of Constitutional Democracy 2

Natural Law: law that comes from nature and is superior to written law passed by legislatures.

11

Element of Constitutional Democracy 3

Natural Rights: those rights to which every person is entitled and that exist apart from and are not dependent on government (life, liberty, property).

12

Classical Liberalism

a body of Western European political philosophy that is concerned with the freedom of the individual and the role of government in protecting that freedom.

13

Feudalism

a system of landholding practiced widely in Mediaeval Europe, peasants called serfs, pledged their loyalty and a portion of their income to a lord in exchange for protection.

14

Social contract

in a social contract, people give up a little bit of their independence for the safety and peace that governments create.

15

Classical Republicanism

a theory that rule by the people ought to be indirect through representatives.

16

Civic Virtue

the subordination of individualism and individual self-interest to the interest of society.

17

Inegalitarianism

a tradition of excluding large segments of the American population from participation in the political system despite the language of equality, liberty, and freedom.

18

Tradition of Exclusion

a tradition that excludes groups from the political system based on their ascribed traits, such as race, gender, and religion.

19

Liberal

Individual who believes that government has a role to play in the lives of individuals and that government can provide solutions to policy problems.

20

Conservatives

are individuals who believe in a limited role for government and do not believe that government should be turned to for solutions to some problems. They believe government involvement would hinder free-market trade.

21

Coverture

a doctrine and system in British common law according to which marriage merged a woman's legal identity with that of her husband.

22

Social Construction of Race

the construction of a group of people of various phenotypes, skin colors, and physical characteristics for political and social purposes such as enslavement and exclusion.

23

Civic virtue

The subordination of individualism and individual self interest to the interest of society.

24

Natural law

Law that comes from nature and is superior to statutory law.

25

Rule of Law

The predominance of law over discretionary authority.

26

Reparations

A concept or tool for providing monetary payments to members of aggrieved groups based on past based on pas wrongful actions against them.