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Flashcards in Chapter 2 and 3 Deck (70)
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1

Sugar Act: April, 5, 1764

Revises duties on sugar, coffee, tea, wine, other imports; expands jurisdiction of vice-admiralty courts.

2

Quartering Act: May, 1765

Requires colonists to supply British troops with housing and other items (candles, firewood).

3

Boston Massacre: March, 1770

Five men were killed by British soldiers, Crisps Attucks, a runaway slave from Framingham, MA and subsequent sailor, was the first to die in the attack and thus became the first person to die in the American Revolution.

4

Describe Thomas Jefferson and his accomplishments.

He was the third president of the United States, was the author of the Declaration of Independence and a slave holder, He fathered six children with his slave, Sally Hemings, freeing the children in is lifetime but not freeing their mother in his will.

5

Unitary Form of Government

A system in which the central government exercises complete control and authority over subunits of government, which means that states or other governmental units do not have autonomous powers.

6

Confederation

A system in which states of other types of government until organize a weak central government with limited scope and powers while reserving ultimate power for themselves.

7

Unicameral Form of Government

A government system that consists of only one legislative body (rather than two or more).

8

What were some of the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?

D

9

Concurrent Powers

Powers shared by the national government and state governments, such as the power to tax and borrow money.

10

National Government

A system of government in which powers are distributed between the central government.

11

Virginia Plan

Drafted by James Madison of Virginia at the 1787 Constitutional Convention, a proposal for a system of government that called for the establishment of a strong central government with three branches: a bicameral legislature, a chief executive chosen by the legislature, and a powerful judiciary.

12

Bicameral Legislature

A legislature with two bodies, usually referred to as the upper and lower chambers, or, as is most common in the US, the House and the Senate.

13

The New Jersey Plan

Drafted by William Patterson of New Jersey at the 1787 Constitutional Convention, a proposal for a system of government that called for the maintenance of a confederation with a unicameral legislature in which al states were represented equally, a multimember executive without the power to veto legislation, and a supreme court.

14

The Great Compromise

Worked out by a committee at the 1787 Constitutional Convention, a compromise that called for membership in the House of Representatives based on population, with states having equal representation in the Senate.

15

Three-Fifths Compromise

A compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention over how state populations were to be counted for purposes of allocating seats in the House of Representatives; each slave was to be counted as three-fifths of a person for representational purposes.

16

Federalists

Proponents of the Constitution during the ratification process. They wanted a strong national government with a bicameral national legislature.

17

Antifederalists

Opponents of the Constitution during the ratification process. They preferred a weaker national government with a unicameral national legislature.

18

The Federalist Papers

A collection of the eighty-five articles written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay in support of the ratification of the Constitution.

19

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which focus primarily on individual liberties and basic rights.

20

Supremacy Clause

A clause in Article 6 of the Constitution stipulating that the Constitution and national laws are "supreme," meaning that when state laws are in conflict with national laws, the latter supersede and take precedence.

21

Enumerated Powers

Powers of the federal government specifically stated in the Constitution.

22

Implied Powers

Government powers that are inferred from the powers expressly enumerated in the Constitution.

23

Necessary and Proper Clause

A clause in Article 1 of the Constitution giving Congress the authority to make whatever laws are necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated responsibilities.

24

Separation of Powers

The manner in which the Constitution divides power among the three branches of government -- the legislature, executive, and the judiciary.

25

Electoral College

The entity that selects the president and vice president, consisting of 538 electors chosen from the fifty states and the District of Columbia.

26

Federalism

The balance of power between the national government on one side and the state and local governments on the other side.

27

Sovereignty

Complete political power and authority.

28

Bicameral Legislature

A legislature with two bodies, usually referred to as the upper and lower chambers, or, as is most common the House and the Senate.

29

Unicameral Form of Government

A government system that consists of only one legislative body.

30

Gerrymandering

The practice in which a group, usually a political party, uses redistricting to maximize its chances of winning elections.