Flashcards in American Revolution, 1754-1789 Deck (58)
Salutary neglect describes the hands-off policy the British adopted towards the colonies prior to 1763. The British did not enforce parliamentary law or interfere in trade.
This resulted in the colonists becoming more self-reliant and independent.
What was the French and Indian War?
The French and Indian War (1754-1763) was fought by the British against France and Indian tribes that were allied to the French. The war was fought mainly for control of the colonial frontier. Victory in the war gave the English control of Canada and the entire Mississippi River valley.
What was George Washington's role in the French and Indian War?
After a British defeat at the Battle of Monongahela, Washington successfully led the retreat to safety of the British and colonial troops. He also led the Virginia Regiment in the attack on Fort Duquesne.
Washington's experience in the French and Indian War gave him valuable training which he used in the Revolutionary War, and also made him the colonies' best-known soldier.
The _____ __ _____ resolved the French and Indian War in 1763.
Treaty of Paris (1763)
The Treaty gave control of North America up to the Mississippi River and the entirety of Canada to the British.
What was Pontiac's Rebellion?
Pontiac's Rebellion was an attack by a group of allied Indian tribes against British outposts west of the Appalachian Mountains.
In response, the British issued the Proclamation of 1763, which banned colonization west of the Appalachian Mountains.
What was the Proclamation of 1763?
In response to Pontiac's Rebellion, the Proclamation of 1763 banned colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. The area from the Appalachians to the Mississippi River was set aside as reserved for the Indians.
How did the Proclamation of 1763 mark a change in relations between Britain and the American colonies?
The Proclamation of 1763 marked the end of the period of salutary neglect, and marked the first time the British directly interfered with colonial affairs.
Further British interference would come in the form of taxation, as the British government sought to have the American colonies pay for some of the costs of the French and Indian War.
Who was Lord George Grenville?
Grenville was Prime Minister of Great Britain between 1763-1765. As Prime Minister, he was responsible for the Stamp Act, Sugar Act, and Quartering Act.
Grenville believed that since the French and Indian War had been waged partly for the benefit of the North American colonists, it was reasonable to expect them to pay some of the debts associated with it.
What were Writs of Assistance?
Writs of Assistance were general search warrants, designed to stop smuggling. They allowed British customs agents to search wherever they pleased, and without having to pay for any damages.
James Otis argued that the Writs violated natural law, and many Americans felt that Writs of Assistance impinged upon their rights as British subjects.
What was the Stamp Act?
The Stamp Act required the purchase of a revenue stamp for newspapers, advertisements, and legal documents.
The first direct tax on the American colonies, the Stamp Act stirred colonial anger because Americans felt they were being taxed without any say.
What were the terms of the Sugar Act?
The Sugar Act increased taxes on luxuries such as sugar. It also provided for stronger enforcement of the Navigation Acts; any smugglers caught would be tried by an admiralty court, without a jury.
The _____ _____ required that Americans house and feed British troops.
Between 1764-1765, the British government passed the Sugar Act, the Quartering Act, and the Stamp Act, which met with hostility in the American colonies. Why did the British government pass these acts?
The three acts were passed to increase revenue from and decrease costs of the North American colonies to the British government after the British amassed a large debt from the French and Indian War.
The Sugar Act and the Stamp Act increased colonial taxes (revenues). The Quartering Act, which required colonists to house and feed British soldiers, decreased costs.
What were the Virginia Resolves?
Passed by Virginia's House of Burgesses, the Virginia Resolves were a response to the Stamp Act, and stated unequivocally that Britain did not have the power to enact taxes without the colonies' consent.
The British disagreed, and contended that the colonies had "virtual representation" in Parliament; thus their interests were represented.
What was the Stamp Act Congress?
Called in 1765 by James Otis of Massachusetts, representatives of nine colonial governments attended the Stamp Act Congress to protest the British government's taxes on the American colonies.
The Stamp Act Congress resolved that only elected representatives had the power to tax citizens.
Who were the Sons and Daughters of Liberty?
The Sons and Daughters of Liberty were a secret society opposed to the Stamp Act.
The Sons regularly intimidated and tarred and feathered British tax agents, and as the Revolutionary War approached, served as a shadow government dedicated to independence.
How did most Americans respond to the Stamp Act?
American outrage at the Stamp Act proved a unifying force throughout the colonies. Some examples include:
In Virginia, Patrick Henry demanded that the King recognize the rights of citizens not to be taxed without their consent ("no taxation without representation")
James Otis in Massachusetts organized the Stamp Act Congress
In Massachusetts, the Sons and Daughters of Liberty regularly tarred and feathered British tax collectors
From 1764-1765, many American colonists boycotted British goods in response to the Stamp Act. How did the British react?
The boycott severely impacted British trade and merchants pressured the British government into repealing the Stamp Act. Britain repealed the Stamp Act in 1766, although the British government also passed the Declaratory Act at the same time.
What was the Declaratory Act?
The Declaratory Act (1766) reaffirmed the power of the British government to tax and make laws for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever." Passed along with the repeal of the Stamp Act, few noticed the reaffirmation of the British taxing power.
In 1766, the British government passed the _____ _____, which established new taxes on paper, tea, and glass, suspended New York's colonial government, and gave British customs officials the power to issue writs of assistance.
The Acts were named for Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who was responsible for raising revenue for the British government.
Who wrote Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer in 1767?
John Dickinson wrote Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer. In it, Dickinson argued that even though the Townshend Acts were indirect taxes, they violated English law. They were impermissible because they were enacted by a government body in which the colonies were not represented.
What was the Massachusetts Circular Letter?
Written by James Otis and Samuel Adams, the Massachusetts Circular Letter went to every colonial legislature, and urged them to petition Parliament to repeal the Townshend Acts.
How did the British colonial government respond to the Massachusetts Circular Letter?
In response to the Massachusetts Circular Letter, British colonial officials
threatened to suspend the Massachusetts legislature
increased the number of British troops in Boston
ordered that the Circular Letter be recalled
Parliament repealed most of the Townshend Acts in 1770, after pressure from a new Prime Minister, Lord North. What was the only tax retained?
As a face-saving measure, Parliament retained a small tax on tea.
What led up to the Boston Massacre in 1770?
In response to the Massachusetts Circular Letter and the activities of the Sons and Daughters of Liberty, the British increased the number of troops stationed in Boston.
In March, 1770, a number of Bostonians harassed the British troops with snowballs and taunts. British troops fired into the crowd, killing five Americans. The British troops were tried for murder. Defended by John Adams, the troops were acquitted.
What were the Committees of Correspondence?
The Committees of Correspondence were groups organized in 1772, by Samuel Adams, in several Massachusetts towns to keep an eye on British activities.
In 1772, colonists disguised as Indians set fire to the _____, a British ship which ran aground off Rhode Island.
The Gaspee was a British customs ship that regularly stopped smugglers, and as such was resented by the colonists. The Gaspee's activities had regularly been reported by the Committees of Correspondence.
Why did Parliament pass the Tea Act of 1773?
Tea was an important component of the British economy. After the American colonies began boycotting tea from Britain (instead using smuggled Dutch tea), the British East India Company suffered a financial crisis.
Hoping to ease the crisis, the British government passed the Tea Act, which made the price of British tea, plus the tax, cheaper than Dutch tea.
What is the difference between direct and indirect taxation?
Direct taxation is a payment directly to the government by the persons upon whom it is imposed. The Stamp Act was an example of direct taxation.
Indirect taxation is a tax collected by an intermediate party. The Townshend Act's taxes on tea, glass, and paper were an indirect tax, because the taxes were not paid directly to the British government.
Direct taxes were strongly opposed by the colonists as impermissible under the principle of "no taxation without representation."