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In 1802, Spain revoked the right of deposit, which allowed farmers tax free use of the port of New Orleans, and which had been granted in the Pinckney Treaty. How did President Jefferson respond?

Jefferson dispatched diplomats to France (which had resumed control of New Orleans) to offer Napoleon $10 million for New Orleans and a small strip of Florida.


How did Napoleon respond to the American offer to purchase New Orleans and parts of Florida for $10 million?

Desperate for funds to continue his war in Europe, and distracted by a slave revolution in Haiti, Napoleon and his ministers offered America the entirety of the Louisiana Territory for $15 million. Shocked at the fantastic bargain, the American diplomats made the deal, without seeking approval from Jefferson or the Congress.


What political development did the Electoral College system not anticipate?

The Electoral College system originally provided that the President would be the person who won the most votes in the College, and the person who won the second most votes would be Vice President.

The Electoral College system did not anticipate the development of political parties, which for a short time led to a President and Vice President being from different parties. The problem was resolved by having separate elections for President and Vice President.


Why did the Louisiana Purchase put Jefferson in a difficult political position?

Since its passage, Jefferson had argued that the President could only exercise those powers specifically enumerated in the Constitution. No Constitutional provision allowed the President to purchase territory. Nevertheless, the Louisiana Purchase was such an amazing deal, Jefferson ignored his qualms and supported the transaction.


Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation were established during the Revolutionary War by the Continental Congress. Due to fears of concentrated power, the Articles intentionally established a weak central government.


What were the effects of the Louisiana Purchase?

The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States, and removed a potentially troubling foreign presence from the American frontier. Containing parts of what would eventually become 13 states, Jefferson hoped that this new land would strengthen the position of his cherished American farmer.


Thomas Jefferson dispatched _____ ___ _____ to explore the newly purchased Louisiana Territory.

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark

In a two-year expedition, Lewis and Clark (assisted by Sacagawea, a Shoshone Indian) explored vast swaths of territory, traveling from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean, and providing descriptions of the newly acquired western lands.

The expedition also strengthened American claims to the Oregon Territory, and an eventual American outlet on the Pacific Ocean.


Jefferson's fiercest opponent during his first term was Aaron Burr, his own Vice President. After the Democratic-Republicans decided not to renominate Burr for Vice President in 1804, how did Burr respond?

Burr attempted to run for Governor of New York, hoping to gain support from the Federalists. He planned to have New York and the New England states secede from the Union, and form a new nation under his rule. Alexander Hamilton foiled his plans by convincing Federalists not to vote for Burr.

Later, convinced that Hamilton had insulted him, Burr challenged him to a duel, and shot him. Burr fled west, and attempted to start a revolution in Mexico, unite it with Louisiana, and assume control. He failed, and was arrested for treason.


Between the President and Congress, the Constitution created three essential checks and balances, to prevent each from gaining too much power. What were they?

The three key checks and balances were:
1. The President can exercise a veto over acts of Congress
2. Congress can override a Presidential veto only with a 2/3 vote in each house
3. Treaties negotiated by the President must be ratified by the Senate


After their resounding defeat in the 1800 election, the Federalists retained control only of the _____ branch of the federal government.

The Judicial Branch: The Constitution provided that federal judges had lifetime tenure, and could only be removed from office by impeachment. Chief Justice John Marshall, a Federalist, would retain that office for 34 years. Nominated by Adams, Marshall would serve until he died in a stagecoach accident during Andrew Jackson's presidency.


midnight appointments

Shortly before he left office, President John Adams appointed a number of prominent Federalists to positions in the United States government, including appointing William Marbury as Justice of the Peace for Washington, D.C.

Thomas Jefferson ordered his Secretary of State, James Madison, not to deliver these midnight appointments, including that of William Marbury. In response, Marbury sued Madison.


What did the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803) establish?

Written by Thomas Jefferson's cousin, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Marshall, Marbury v. Madison established the principle of judicial review.

Marbury held that William Marbury was entitled to his appointment as Justice of the Peace for Washington, D.C., but that the Judiciary Act of 1789, which gave him the right to appeal to the Supreme Court for redress, was unconstitutional, and therefore Marbury's request was denied.


judicial review

Judicial review is a principle, established in Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137, (1803) that holds that the Supreme Court has the power to review acts of Congress and the President to determine whether they are allowed under the Constitution.

In Marbury, Justice Marshall and a unanimous Court held that the Judicial Act of 1789 was unconstitutional, as it gave the federal courts more power than the Constitution allowed.


What was the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair?

In 1807, a few miles off the coast of Virginia, the British ship HMS Leopard attacked and boarded the American ship USS Chesapeake, looking for British navy deserters. Four sailors were taken from the Chesapeake, one of whom was hung.

Outraged, Americans once more clamored for war against Great Britain.


Thomas Jefferson thought war with Britain was unwise given the small size of the American navy. How did he respond to the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, as well as continued British impressment of American sailors?

Jefferson convinced Congress to pass the Embargo Act in 1807, which barred American ships from sailing to any non-American port.

Jefferson hoped that Britain, cut off from American supplies, would cease violating American rights. Britain simply began importing more goods from South America, and continued her activities.


What was the result of the Embargo Act (1807) on the American economy?

With overseas markets closed, a massive depression followed the Embargo Act, especially in New England, where the economy was heavily dependent on shipping and trade.

Jefferson, recognizing the failure, supported Madison's push for repeal in 1809. Even after the repeal of the Embargo Act, Americans were forbidden to trade with the two major warring European powers, Britain and France, by the Non-Intercourse Act.


Who were the Barbary Pirates?

The Barbary Pirates were a group of small city-states on the north coast of Africa that demanded tribute from the American government to refrain from attacking American ships. Although Washington and Adams paid the tribute reluctantly, Jefferson dispatched a naval expedition (and a few Marines) to deal with the Barbary Pirates.

Although there was no decisive end to the war, a force of Marines achieved the first U.S. victory on foreign soil at the Battle of Derna. Their feat is commemorated in the Marines Hymn (" the shores of Tripoli...").


The Non-Intercourse Act (1809) repealed the Embargo Act (1807), but still disallowed U.S. trade with _____ and _____.

Britain; France

Passed at the beginning of Madison's first term, the Non-Intercourse Act was Madison's attempt to ease the economic hardship caused by the Embargo Act, while still maintaining U.S. neutrality in the war between France and Britain. However, the American economy continued to suffer.


What offer did Macon's Bill No. 2 (1810) make to Britain and France?

Macon's Bill No. 2 (1810) stated that if either France or Britain agreed to respect American rights of neutrality and freedom of the seas, trade would resume with that nation, while the United States would ban trade with that nation's foe.

As a side note, Macon's Bill No. 1, which barred French and British ships from American harbors, never passed the entire Congress. Nathaniel Macon, after whom it was named, neither proposed nor voted for Macon's Bill No. 2.


How did France and Britain react to Macon's Bill No. 2 (1810)?

Napoleonic France agreed to respect American rights. Madison's suspicions that Napoleon had no intention of actually doing so turned out to be correct.

The British were offended by the bill, increasing tensions between the two countries which had already been on the brink of war a number of times since the Revolution. The British strengthened their naval blockade of the American coast.


Who were the War Hawks?

The War Hawks were Congressmen who favored war with Great Britain. Led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun, most War Hawks came from the new states of the American West, such as Tennessee and Kentucky.

The War Hawks contended that war with Britain was a matter of national honor, and the only way to ensure freedom of the seas and to stop British aid to Indian tribes of the West. They also argued that in the event of war, Canada could be taken by the United States.


Why did Madison ask Congress for a declaration of war against Britain in 1812?

Throughout his first term, Madison had done his best to stay neutral in the decades-long conflict between France and Britain. Continued impressment by the British Navy, the blockade of the American coast, and the pressure of the War Hawks led to Madison's request that Congress declare war.

Ironically, after war was declared, Madison received word that the British had agreed to stop their blockade.


How did Federalists react to the declaration of war against Britain?

Centered in New England, New York, and New Jersey, Federalists denounced the war as an attempt by the Democratic-Republicans to conquer Canada and Florida in an effort to increase the number of Democratic-Republican voters.


In addition to the Federalists, New England merchants (many of whom were Federalists) opposed the War of 1812 for different reasons. Why?

Despite Britain's blockades, the Embargo Act (1807), and the Non-Intercourse Act (1809), New England merchants made substantial profits off of both sides in the Napoleonic Wars, and were reluctant to sever trading with Britain.


What was the target of the initial American attack during the War of 1812?

American forces launched a three-prong attack into Canada. Poorly equipped and poorly led, American troops were defeated, achieving only one notable success by burning York (modern-day Toronto).


Who was Tecumseh?

Tecumseh was a Shawnee, who tried to unite the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi River in a confederacy to resist white expansion.

Tecumseh's army was defeated by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Since they provided aid to the Indians, the British were blamed by Americans for Tecumseh's activities, leading to further difficulties between the United States and Britain.


Under Oliver Hazard Perry, American naval forces achieved a resounding victory during which battle?

The Battle of Lake Erie

Due to Perry's victory, General William Henry Harrison was able to deploy more sizable forces to protect Detroit, and to win a notable victory over the remainder of Tecumseh's forces at the Battle of the Thames River in Canada.


In 1814, after Napoleon's first surrender, the British launched a counterattack with their freshly available forces. Where did this attack take place?

The British campaign was centered on the Chesapeake region. They captured and burned Washington, and then attempted to take Baltimore and Fort McHenry.

Fort McHenry withstood the British attack, and Francis Scott Key, who'd observed the bombardment of the fort, was inspired to write the "Star Spangled Banner."


Who led American troops in the South during the War of 1812?

Andrew Jackson fought a successful campaign against Britain's allies, the Creek Indians (opening Alabama for settlement), then withstood a British attack at New Orleans.

The Battle of New Orleans took place on January 8, 1815. A stirring American victory, it actually took place two weeks after a peace treaty had been signed between the British and Americans at Ghent, in Belgium.


What were the terms of the Treaty of Ghent?

The Treaty of Ghent restored the status quo antebellum (a Latin phrase meaning: the state in which things were before the war), and formalized the American/Canadian boundary. Neither side had achieved decisive victory in the War of 1812.