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Flashcards in Creating a Republican Society: 1800-1848 Deck (134):
1

In 1802, Spain revoked the right of deposit, which allowed farmers tax free use of the port of New Orleans, and which had been granted in the Pinckney Treaty. How did President Jefferson respond?

Jefferson dispatched diplomats to France (which had resumed control of New Orleans) to offer Napoleon $10 million for New Orleans and a small strip of Florida.

2

How did Napoleon respond to the American offer to purchase New Orleans and parts of Florida for $10 million?

Desperate for funds to continue his war in Europe, and distracted by a slave revolution in Haiti, Napoleon and his ministers offered America the entirety of the Louisiana Territory for $15 million. Shocked at the fantastic bargain, the American diplomats made the deal, without seeking approval from Jefferson or the Congress.

3

What political development did the Electoral College system not anticipate?

The Electoral College system originally provided that the President would be the person who won the most votes in the College, and the person who won the second most votes would be Vice President.

The Electoral College system did not anticipate the development of political parties, which for a short time led to a President and Vice President being from different parties. The problem was resolved by having separate elections for President and Vice President.

4

Why did the Louisiana Purchase put Jefferson in a difficult political position?

Since its passage, Jefferson had argued that the President could only exercise those powers specifically enumerated in the Constitution. No Constitutional provision allowed the President to purchase territory. Nevertheless, the Louisiana Purchase was such an amazing deal, Jefferson ignored his qualms and supported the transaction.

5

Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation were established during the Revolutionary War by the Continental Congress. Due to fears of concentrated power, the Articles intentionally established a weak central government.

6

What were the effects of the Louisiana Purchase?

The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States, and removed a potentially troubling foreign presence from the American frontier. Containing parts of what would eventually become 13 states, Jefferson hoped that this new land would strengthen the position of his cherished American farmer.

7

Thomas Jefferson dispatched _____ ___ _____ to explore the newly purchased Louisiana Territory.

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark

In a two-year expedition, Lewis and Clark (assisted by Sacagawea, a Shoshone Indian) explored vast swaths of territory, traveling from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean, and providing descriptions of the newly acquired western lands.

The expedition also strengthened American claims to the Oregon Territory, and an eventual American outlet on the Pacific Ocean.

8

Jefferson's fiercest opponent during his first term was Aaron Burr, his own Vice President. After the Democratic-Republicans decided not to renominate Burr for Vice President in 1804, how did Burr respond?

Burr attempted to run for Governor of New York, hoping to gain support from the Federalists. He planned to have New York and the New England states secede from the Union, and form a new nation under his rule. Alexander Hamilton foiled his plans by convincing Federalists not to vote for Burr.

Later, convinced that Hamilton had insulted him, Burr challenged him to a duel, and shot him. Burr fled west, and attempted to start a revolution in Mexico, unite it with Louisiana, and assume control. He failed, and was arrested for treason.

9

Between the President and Congress, the Constitution created three essential checks and balances, to prevent each from gaining too much power. What were they?

The three key checks and balances were:
1. The President can exercise a veto over acts of Congress
2. Congress can override a Presidential veto only with a 2/3 vote in each house
3. Treaties negotiated by the President must be ratified by the Senate

10

After their resounding defeat in the 1800 election, the Federalists retained control only of the _____ branch of the federal government.

The Judicial Branch: The Constitution provided that federal judges had lifetime tenure, and could only be removed from office by impeachment. Chief Justice John Marshall, a Federalist, would retain that office for 34 years. Nominated by Adams, Marshall would serve until he died in a stagecoach accident during Andrew Jackson's presidency.

11

midnight appointments

Shortly before he left office, President John Adams appointed a number of prominent Federalists to positions in the United States government, including appointing William Marbury as Justice of the Peace for Washington, D.C.

Thomas Jefferson ordered his Secretary of State, James Madison, not to deliver these midnight appointments, including that of William Marbury. In response, Marbury sued Madison.

12

What did the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803) establish?

Written by Thomas Jefferson's cousin, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Marshall, Marbury v. Madison established the principle of judicial review.

Marbury held that William Marbury was entitled to his appointment as Justice of the Peace for Washington, D.C., but that the Judiciary Act of 1789, which gave him the right to appeal to the Supreme Court for redress, was unconstitutional, and therefore Marbury's request was denied.

13

judicial review

Judicial review is a principle, established in Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137, (1803) that holds that the Supreme Court has the power to review acts of Congress and the President to determine whether they are allowed under the Constitution.

In Marbury, Justice Marshall and a unanimous Court held that the Judicial Act of 1789 was unconstitutional, as it gave the federal courts more power than the Constitution allowed.

14

What was the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair?

In 1807, a few miles off the coast of Virginia, the British ship HMS Leopard attacked and boarded the American ship USS Chesapeake, looking for British navy deserters. Four sailors were taken from the Chesapeake, one of whom was hung.

Outraged, Americans once more clamored for war against Great Britain.

15

Thomas Jefferson thought war with Britain was unwise given the small size of the American navy. How did he respond to the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, as well as continued British impressment of American sailors?

Jefferson convinced Congress to pass the Embargo Act in 1807, which barred American ships from sailing to any non-American port.

Jefferson hoped that Britain, cut off from American supplies, would cease violating American rights. Britain simply began importing more goods from South America, and continued her activities.

16

What was the result of the Embargo Act (1807) on the American economy?

With overseas markets closed, a massive depression followed the Embargo Act, especially in New England, where the economy was heavily dependent on shipping and trade.

Jefferson, recognizing the failure, supported Madison's push for repeal in 1809. Even after the repeal of the Embargo Act, Americans were forbidden to trade with the two major warring European powers, Britain and France, by the Non-Intercourse Act.

17

Who were the Barbary Pirates?

The Barbary Pirates were a group of small city-states on the north coast of Africa that demanded tribute from the American government to refrain from attacking American ships. Although Washington and Adams paid the tribute reluctantly, Jefferson dispatched a naval expedition (and a few Marines) to deal with the Barbary Pirates.

Although there was no decisive end to the war, a force of Marines achieved the first U.S. victory on foreign soil at the Battle of Derna. Their feat is commemorated in the Marines Hymn ("...to the shores of Tripoli...").

18

The Non-Intercourse Act (1809) repealed the Embargo Act (1807), but still disallowed U.S. trade with _____ and _____.

Britain; France

Passed at the beginning of Madison's first term, the Non-Intercourse Act was Madison's attempt to ease the economic hardship caused by the Embargo Act, while still maintaining U.S. neutrality in the war between France and Britain. However, the American economy continued to suffer.

19

What offer did Macon's Bill No. 2 (1810) make to Britain and France?

Macon's Bill No. 2 (1810) stated that if either France or Britain agreed to respect American rights of neutrality and freedom of the seas, trade would resume with that nation, while the United States would ban trade with that nation's foe.

As a side note, Macon's Bill No. 1, which barred French and British ships from American harbors, never passed the entire Congress. Nathaniel Macon, after whom it was named, neither proposed nor voted for Macon's Bill No. 2.

20

How did France and Britain react to Macon's Bill No. 2 (1810)?

Napoleonic France agreed to respect American rights. Madison's suspicions that Napoleon had no intention of actually doing so turned out to be correct.

The British were offended by the bill, increasing tensions between the two countries which had already been on the brink of war a number of times since the Revolution. The British strengthened their naval blockade of the American coast.

21

Who were the War Hawks?

The War Hawks were Congressmen who favored war with Great Britain. Led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun, most War Hawks came from the new states of the American West, such as Tennessee and Kentucky.

The War Hawks contended that war with Britain was a matter of national honor, and the only way to ensure freedom of the seas and to stop British aid to Indian tribes of the West. They also argued that in the event of war, Canada could be taken by the United States.

22

Why did Madison ask Congress for a declaration of war against Britain in 1812?

Throughout his first term, Madison had done his best to stay neutral in the decades-long conflict between France and Britain. Continued impressment by the British Navy, the blockade of the American coast, and the pressure of the War Hawks led to Madison's request that Congress declare war.

Ironically, after war was declared, Madison received word that the British had agreed to stop their blockade.

23

How did Federalists react to the declaration of war against Britain?

Centered in New England, New York, and New Jersey, Federalists denounced the war as an attempt by the Democratic-Republicans to conquer Canada and Florida in an effort to increase the number of Democratic-Republican voters.

24

In addition to the Federalists, New England merchants (many of whom were Federalists) opposed the War of 1812 for different reasons. Why?

Despite Britain's blockades, the Embargo Act (1807), and the Non-Intercourse Act (1809), New England merchants made substantial profits off of both sides in the Napoleonic Wars, and were reluctant to sever trading with Britain.

25

What was the target of the initial American attack during the War of 1812?

American forces launched a three-prong attack into Canada. Poorly equipped and poorly led, American troops were defeated, achieving only one notable success by burning York (modern-day Toronto).

26

Who was Tecumseh?

Tecumseh was a Shawnee, who tried to unite the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi River in a confederacy to resist white expansion.

Tecumseh's army was defeated by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Since they provided aid to the Indians, the British were blamed by Americans for Tecumseh's activities, leading to further difficulties between the United States and Britain.

27

Under Oliver Hazard Perry, American naval forces achieved a resounding victory during which battle?

The Battle of Lake Erie

Due to Perry's victory, General William Henry Harrison was able to deploy more sizable forces to protect Detroit, and to win a notable victory over the remainder of Tecumseh's forces at the Battle of the Thames River in Canada.

28

In 1814, after Napoleon's first surrender, the British launched a counterattack with their freshly available forces. Where did this attack take place?

The British campaign was centered on the Chesapeake region. They captured and burned Washington, and then attempted to take Baltimore and Fort McHenry.

Fort McHenry withstood the British attack, and Francis Scott Key, who'd observed the bombardment of the fort, was inspired to write the "Star Spangled Banner."

29

Who led American troops in the South during the War of 1812?

Andrew Jackson fought a successful campaign against Britain's allies, the Creek Indians (opening Alabama for settlement), then withstood a British attack at New Orleans.

The Battle of New Orleans took place on January 8, 1815. A stirring American victory, it actually took place two weeks after a peace treaty had been signed between the British and Americans at Ghent, in Belgium.

30

What were the terms of the Treaty of Ghent?

The Treaty of Ghent restored the status quo antebellum (a Latin phrase meaning: the state in which things were before the war), and formalized the American/Canadian boundary. Neither side had achieved decisive victory in the War of 1812.

31

What was the Hartford Convention?

The Hartford Convention was a meeting of New England Federalists opposed to the War of 1812, many of whom supported secession. Although a vote for secession failed, the Hartford Convention urged opposition to the War and amendment to the Constitution to stop the growth of Democratic-Republican power.

After the War and Jackson's victory at the Battle of New Orleans, the Federalists were castigated as unpatriotic, and by 1820, the Federalists had disintegrated as a national political force.

32

As established in the Constitution, how did the Electoral College work?

1. The President would be elected by an Electoral College
2. Each state was given the same number of votes as they had Representatives and Senators
3. The person with the most votes in the Electoral College would be elected President
4. The person with the second most votes in the Electoral College would be elected Vice President

33

_____ _____ invented the steamboat, revolutionizing travel on the nation's waterways.

Robert Fulton

Fulton's invention made it possible for farmers in the West to get their products to Eastern ports inexpensively and quickly, and for manufacturers to get their goods to the West.

34

Eli Whitney's invention of the _____ _____ made it economical to use cotton to manufacture clothes.

cotton gin

Short for "engine," the gin automatically separated cotton fibers from cotton seed, and greatly sped up the production of cotton. The gin made slavery more profitable, allowed cotton to replace wool as the dominant material in clothing, and revolutionized the Southern economy.

35

What was the major source of power for the earliest American factories?

water power

Early factories were located by rivers and water power was used to operate the mills. Water mills were especially useful in early textile mills.

36

What change in business law in the early 1820s revolutionized the way in which companies raised capital?

In the early 1820s, New York permitted the formation of corporations. A corporation allows many individuals to purchase a percentage of ownership (known as a share).

By allowing companies to issue stock to raise funds, corporations were able to invest capital in property, plants, and equipment, speeding the growth of manufacturing.

37

The earliest factories were labor intensive, and consequently suffered from severe manpower shortages. How did they make up for these shortfalls?

Several factories hired women, some of whom worked in the Lowell System, where workers lived and labored at the factory. Children as young as seven were employed throughout the Northeast.

Both groups were later supplanted by the influx of immigrants in the 1830s and 1840s, most of whom were German and Irish.

38

How did new farming innovations such as Cyrus McCormick's reaper and John Deere's plow fuel the growth of urban centers?

New farming implements (and larger farms in the American West) meant that for the first time, farmers were able to produce surplus goods, beyond merely what they needed to sustain themselves and their families.

These surplus goods were shipped to the new urban centers that were springing up along canals and railroads.

39

Why did the new states of Mississippi, Alabama, and Arkansas experience an influx of Southerners from other states?

Much of the farmland in areas such as Georgia and South Carolina had been exhausted by years of cotton farming and poor crop management. The lands in these new states proved fertile and ideal for cotton growing.

The new arrivals typically brought their slaves with them, and the price for field slaves doubled between 1825 and 1845.

40

sectionalism

Sectionalism is having excessive interest in one's own local region over the country as a whole.

Beginning in the 1820s, the interests of the sections of the country began to diverge. For example, the South resented the Tariff of Abominations, which was being used to fund improvements such as roads and canals in the West. Meanwhile, Westerners did not like the Bank of the United States, which they felt was being used by Northern merchants to enhance their wealth.

41

Roughly speaking, what were the three main sections of the country during the Antebellum Period?

The three main sections of the country were the North, the South, and the West. The West was generally considered anything beyond the Mississippi River.

42

In Antebellum America, which section of the country saw the largest influx of immigrants?

Most immigrants settled in the American North.

While Irish immigrants remained in many of the urban centers on the Eastern seaboard, Germans took up residence in the Old Northwest (the states that made up the Northwestern Territories), starting farms in locations such as Minnesota, Ohio, and Indiana.

43

Besides immigrants, what other group migrated in significant numbers to the Old Northwest?

The Old Northwest became the new home of many migrants who left New England. Their migration was the first of many that would continue to push the frontier ever farther westward, and they brought with them much of the culture of the New England colonies.

44

What was the role of unions in the rapidly growing urban manufacturing areas during the Antebellum Period?

To the extent that they existed, unions focused on efforts to limit the workday to 10 hours. Any pressure that unions were able to exert was limited by the depression that followed the Panic of 1837 and led to a surplus of labor, as well as the constant influx of immigrants, who provided an inexpensive pool of non-union labor.

45

In 1800 approximately 5% of the population of the North was urban. What percentage was urban by 1850?

About 15% of the population was urban by 1850. This rapid urbanization brought with it many problems, from the growth of slums and disease, to crime and inadequate sanitation.

46

Between 1845 and 1852, a million immigrants fled Ireland due to what cause?

the Irish Potato Famine

Most of the immigration between 1845 and 1852 can be attributed to the Irish Potato Famine. The potato was an Irish dietary staple, and another million inhabitants of Ireland died of starvation.

47

In 1820, only 8,000 immigrants arrived from Europe, but by the mid-1850s, hundreds of thousands were arriving each year. Besides the potato famine in Ireland, what other factors contributed to this substantial increase?

In 1848, revolutions broke out throughout Europe. Germany was particularly troubled, and many Germans came to the United States for refuge. The United States had a growing reputation as a place where hard work would be rewarded.

In addition, ocean transport was improving, both in speed and comfort, and several shipping lines specialized in transporting immigrants across the Atlantic.

48


Antebellum nativists

Antebellum nativists were suspicious of the new German and Irish immigrants. Most of the German immigrants, and almost all of the Irish ones, were Catholic. Protestant nativists feared that both groups could undermine American culture and take American jobs.

Anti-immigrant fervor would reach its height in the 1850s, with the formation of the Know-Nothing Party.

49

Only a limited number of blacks lived in the North. How were they treated generally?

Blacks in the North had limited property, voting, and legal rights, and received lower wages than whites.

Much like the Irish in the South, many of the Northern Irish resented blacks as the only inferior group in the social heirarchy.

50

Why did the South see little immigration?

Since the South had a small manufacturing base, most low-level jobs were agricultural, and centered on the plantation economy. These jobs were held by slaves, and there simply were not enough free labor jobs to support large-scale immigration to the region.

51

Cotton was the South's largest product, but the South did grow other agricultural products, including ____ and ______.

tobacco; rice

Both tobacco and rice also required large amounts of slave labor. Cotton, however, took precedent over both.

52


Which group was on top of the Southern class structure?

Plantation Owners

To be considered in the upper echelon of the South's plantation economy, one needed 1,000 acres of land and 100 slaves.

53

Although plantation owners had large tracts of land, who was responsible for most cotton production?

Most cotton was produced by smaller farmers, who worked the fields along with their slaves. Many small farmers had two or three slaves and landholdings of 40 acres.

54

Who was at the bottom of the white class structure in the South?

Of the three classes in the Southern farming society, the "bukra" were the lowest class and the strongest advocates of slavery. Slavery kept them from falling to the bottom rung of the social structure.

The bukra comprised some 75% of the white population in the South.

55

Of the 15 largest cities in the United States in 1860, how many were in the South?

Three of the 15 largest cities were in the South, but only New Orleans was in the deep South. The other two cities, St. Louis, Missouri and Louisville, Kentucky, heavily relied on their trade with the West and North.

56

Which religious groups supported slavery in the South?

Methodists and Baptists supported slavery, citing Biblical support for the peculiar institution; as a result, their numbers grew
• Unitarians challenged slavery as an institution, and their membership dropped as a consequence
• Catholics and Episcopalians, present only in negligible numbers in the South, remained neutral over the issue

57

What characteristics defined the Planter Aristocracy in the South?

Paternalistic: treatment of social and racial inferiors
2. Educated: with rare exceptions, higher education was the province of the upper classes in the South
3. Chivalrous: including rigid interactions between the sexes, and a code of honor that governed behavior, and which, if impinged, led to duels
4. Politically Powerful: held most of the political power

58

How much education did the typical slave receive?

None

It was actually against the law to teach slaves to read or write, although a few managed to learn clandestinely.

59

Mountain Men

Mountain Men such as Kit Carson and Jim Bridger were primarily fur trappers and hunters. They were some of the earliest explorers of the American West, following in the footsteps of Lewis and Clark.

As Americans pushed ever westward, many of these same Mountain Men served to guide the wagon trains over the Rocky Mountains. A large number of these men married American Indian and Hispanic women.

60

During the Antebellum period, most Indians lived west of the Mississippi River. How did they survive?

Most Indians lived a nomadic existence, aided by the introduction of the horse. Indian villages were mobile, and the tribes in the Great Plains and Upper Midwest followed the massive buffalo herds that roamed the prairies.

61

Describe the lives of women on the Western frontier.

The life of a frontier woman was most often nasty, brutish, and short. Most farm houses were miles away from neighbors, and isolation was intense. A frontier woman not only had to help her husband in the field, but was responsible for keeping house, cooking, and tending to the sick. Many died in childbirth, or succumbed to disease.

62

By the mid-1850s, railroads connected St. Louis with New York City and were prevalent throughout the North. Why were railroads so prevalent in the North?

Railroads were capital intensive. While most capital in the North went to railroads and manufacturing, most free capital in the South went to purchase slaves, which were becoming more expensive.

At the outbreak of the Civil War, the South had 9,500 miles of track, and the North had 22,000.

63

Completed in 1825, the _____ _____ connected New York City and Buffalo by water.

Erie Canal

The Canal's completion allowed goods to be shipped to New York via the Great Lakes from as far away as Wisconsin, and the Canal soon rivaled the Mississippi River as the nation's aquatic highway.

64

How did New York City become the country's commercial center and its largest city by the 1820s?

Several factors contributed to New York City's rise:
1. Railroads: New York marked the terminus of many Western railroads, which meant that agricultural products were shipped to New York and New York shipped finished goods to the Midwest
2. Banking: New York banks proved adept at lending capital to distant farmers, in both the West and South
3. Shipping: New York became the largest harbor in the United States, and transported Western agricultural products and finished goods overseas

65

What changes in shipping took place between 1820 and 1850?

Shipping changed drastically during the period. In addition to the greater deployment of steam vessels, clipper ships were introduced, drastically cutting sailing times. Further, shipping lines began operating regular schedules with set departure times. This significantly increased the ease of doing business internationally.

66

What changes did the factory system experience from 1820 to 1850?

. In the 1820s, factories had primarily been used for the textile industry, while other professions, such as shoemaking and clothesmaking, had been done by artisans at home. By the 1850s, most artisans had been shunted aside and factories mass-produced goods, ranging from boots to firearms, with the use of unskilled labor.

Factories were able to expand due to the rapid influx of cheap labor, mainly Irish and German immigrants.

67

The Era of Good Feelings

The Era of Good Feelings began with James Monroe's election to the Presidency in 1816. With the Federalist Party collapsing, the Democratic-Republicans dominated politics and there was a renewed optimism brought about by a revived American economy and peace in Europe.

68

The Rush-Bagot Agreement (1815), established disarmament upon what international border?

In the Rush-Bagot Agreement, British and American diplomats severely limited naval armament on the Great Lakes and set the stage for limits on border forts between the United States and Canada.

The Rush-Bagot Agreement inaugurated peaceful coexistence between America and Canada.

69


Under Chief Justice John Marshall, how did the Supreme Court strengthen the federal government?

The Marshall Court issued decisions that established the superiority of the federal government over the states.

70

Although the Supreme Court had held a federal law unconstitutional in Marbury v. Madison, in what case did the Supreme Court establish the principle that it could hold a state law unconstitutional?

Fletcher v. Peck (1810)

In Fletcher, the Georgia state legislature had enacted a law that voided some land sales which a previous legislature had made and which were induced by bribery.

The Marshall Court held that the Georgia legislature's law was a violaton of the U.S. Constitution.

71

What prompted General Andrew Jackson's military actions in Florida in the late 1810s?

After Spanish troops were withdrawn from Florida to suppress rebellions in Central and South America, a mixed band of escaped slaves, whites, and Seminole Indians used the lack of authority to launch raids on American settlements and then flee across the border beyond American retribution.

President Monroe authorized Jackson to stop the raids by crossing the border if necessary.

72

How did the United States acquire Florida in 1819?

With American troops already in Florida (Andrew Jackson had captured Pensacola in 1818), the Spanish government recognized that the United States would likely conquer Florida and agreed to sell it to the United States, as well as give up its rights to the Oregon Territory.

For payment the U.S. government assumed $5 million in claims against Spain and also abandoned any claim to Spanish Texas based upon the Louisiana Purchase.

73

In 1823, concerned about European attempts to conquer new republics in Central and South America, James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine. What did the Monroe Doctrine establish?

The Monroe Doctrine asserted that no further European colonization would be allowed in the New World and any attempt to do so would result in American intervention.

74

What were the three components of Henry Clay's American System?

The American System's three components were:
1. Impose a high tariff on foreign goods to protect American manufacturing and provide revenue for internal improvements
2. Establish a National Bank to provide stable currency and a credit to the federal government
3. Stimulate internal improvements (transportation projects) to aid the development of the West and to funnel agricultural goods to eastern ports

75

Why did Congress pass the Tariff of 1816?

Concerned that goods from newly peaceful Britain would flood the U.S. market, Congress passed a high tariff in 1816 to protect American manufacturers. It was the first protectionist tariff.

Although passed by Democratic-Republicans, the Tariff of 1816 was similar to one proposed by Hamilton decades before.

76

A second Bank of the United States was chartered in 1816 (Hamilton's bank's charter expired in 1811), but was blamed for the Panic of 1819. Why?


The Second Bank of the United States responded to the inflation that resulted from the end of the War of 1812 by tightening public credit. As a result, the economy collapsed.

The West was especially hard-hit as the government foreclosed on farms and debtors were thrown into prison. As a result, the Bank was exceedingly unpopular in the West.

77

After Maryland tried to tax the Second Bank of the United States, the case went all the way to the Supreme Court. How did the Marshall Court rule?

The Court held that Maryland could not tax the Bank. The Constitution gave the government the implied power to create a bank, and because the power to tax is the power to destroy, Maryland could not tax an institution created by the federal government.

78

Prior to Missouri's petition for admission as a slave state, what was the balance of power in the House and the Senate?

There were more Northern Representatives in the House, since the North had a greater population. In the Senate, however, there were 11 free state Senators, and 11 slave state Senators.

Missouri's admission as a slave state threatened to upset the even numbers in the Senate, worrying many in the North.

79

What was the Tallmadge Amendment?

The Tallmadge Amendment made Missouri's admission to the Union conditional upon its emancipation of the children of all slaves upon their 25th birthday, and required that no further slaves could be taken to Missouri.

The Tallmadge Amendment failed to pass the Senate, but angered Southerners who resented any interference with slavery.

80

Peculiar Institution

Peculiar Institution was a Southern euphemism for slavery.

The word "slavery" was deemed improper, especially in legislative bodies, and Southerners increasingly used the term "Peculiar Institution" instead.

81

What were the three key components of the Missouri Compromise (1820)?

The Missouri Compromise:
1. Missouri admitted as a slave state
2. Maine admitted as a free state
3. Slavery disallowed in future territories north of 36°30' except within Missouri itself

82

Who proposed the Missouri Compromise?


Henry Clay

The Missouri Compromise preserved the balance of power in the Senate, ensuring that for each free state admitted to the Union, a slave state would also be admitted.

Portions of the Missouri Compromise would be repealed by the Kansas Nebraska Act of 1854, which allowed new states to vote on whether or not they wanted to allow slavery, and others would be struck down in the Scott v. Sandford decision.

83

Although the Missouri Compromise (1820) forestalled the Civil War for 30 years, it also began what trend?

The Missouri Compromise began the trend of sectionalism, and citizens began viewing the effect of political and economic activity on one's section as equally important to the effect of the activity on the nation as a whole.

The three sections are generally considered to be the North, the South, and the West.

84

The election of 1824 featured four candidates for President. Who were they?

John Quincy Adams
2. Henry Clay
3. Andrew Jackson
4. William Crawford

Andrew Jackson won the popular vote, but failed to win a majority. John Quincy Adams finished second, and William Crawford third (although he was nearly dead). Since none of the candidates won a majority, the election of the President was sent to the House of Representatives.

85

What did Andrew Jackson's supporters consider the "Corrupt Bargain"?

In 1824, the House of Representatives was under the control of Henry Clay (who also finished fourth in the Electoral College that year). Although Andrew Jackson had won the popular vote, Clay's efforts convinced the House to vote for John Quincy Adams as President.

Upon his election, Adams promptly nominated Clay as Secretary of State (considered a stepping stone to the Presidency). Outraged Jacksonians saw a conspiracy afoot, and denounced what they considered a "corrupt bargain."

86

How did the presidential election of 1824 end the Era of Good Feelings?

Each of the four candidates was ostensibly from the same political party, the Democratic-Republican Party. After the election, the Party split into Democrats (who supported Jackson), and the National Republicans, who became the Whig Party in 1828.

87

In 1824, and again in 1828, the House passed tariffs that increased the cost of imported goods from Britain, in an effort to protect New England manufacturing. The 1828 Tariff was widely resented in the South. What did Southerners call the 1828 Tariff?

They nicknamed the 1828 Tariff the "Tariff of Abominations." Ironically, the Tariff had been originally proposed by South Carolina Congressman John C. Calhoun.

In response to the Tariff of Abominations, the British sharply reduced their cotton imports from the South, ravaging the South's economic base.

88

The Election of 1828 pitted John Quincy Adams against Andrew Jackson. How did Jackson's supporters characterize their candidate?

Jackson's supporters characterized him as the champion of the common man. Jackson had no higher education, had been in several duels, and was a military hero.

Jackson's background readily appealed to the newly enfranchised voters of the West, from where he drew much of his support.

89

The presidential election of 1828 saw a vast increase in voters compared to previous elections. Why?

Changes in many states' electoral laws had removed the rule that a voter must own land in order to vote. Thousands of newly enfranchised voters flocked to the polls, many of them supporting Andrew Jackson.

90

Kitchen Cabinet

Andrew Jackson's Kitchen Cabinet was a group of informal advisors upon whose counsel Jackson relied, breaking the tradition of consulting formal Cabinet ministers.

91

Spoils System

Under the Spoils System, the newly elected President appointed those who'd helped him to federal office, such as Postmaster.

Jackson believed that no training was necessary for any federal office. He also rotated federal officeholders after his first term, so as to provide jobs to as many Democrats as possible.

92

What was the Peggy Eaton Affair?


Peggy Eaton had married Sen. John Henry Eaton shortly after the death of her first husband, in a move that scandalized Washington. Vice President John C. Calhoun's wife, Floride, refused to invite Peggy Eaton to social functions, and induced the wives of other Cabinet members to do the same.

Their actions angered Jackson, whose own wife Rachel had been similarly blackballed. Jackson showed support for Eaton by appointing him Secretary of War. The remainder of the Cabinet resigned in protest, except for Martin van Buren (a bachelor) and Eaton.

For his loyalty, van Buren was appointed Vice President by Jackson when Calhoun resigned.

93

What was the Indian Removal Act (1830)?

The Indian Removal Act forcibly ejected Indians from lands east of the Mississippi.

Signed by Jackson and carried out for a period of years, the Indians followed the Trail of Tears (so named because thousands died along the way) from parts of the South to new homes in Oklahoma.

94

What was the Nullification Crisis?

In 1832, during Andrew Jackson's presidency, South Carolina sought to challenge the Tariff of Abominations, which it felt disadvantaged it against Northern competitor states, and passed the Ordinance of Nullification, banning the collection of the Tariff in South Carolina.

Essentially, South Carolina was claiming that it had the ability to nullify, within its borders, a law passed by the federal government.

95

How did Andrew Jackson respond to South Carolina's attempt to nullify the Tariff of Abominations?

After asking Congress for a Force Bill, Jackson mobilized the Army, and threatened to hang John C. Calhoun, a South Carolina politician and his former Vice President, from the nearest tree. Jackson, although in favor of states' rights, considered South Carolina's actions to be treason.

After heated debate, cooler heads prevailed, and South Carolina backed down.

96

What did Andrew Jackson call the "Hydra of Corruption"?

The Second Bank of the United States

Jackson felt that the Bank was unconstitutional, and only served the wealthy. Jackson declared war on the Bank, and on its President, Nicholas Biddle. It did not help the Bank's public image that Biddle was arrogant and unpopular.

97

How did Henry Clay respond to Jackson's antipathy towards the Bank of the United States?

Although the Bank's charter still had a few years left, Clay pushed a recharter bill through Congress, which Jackson promptly vetoed.

Clay had hoped that Jackson's veto of the recharter bill would swing the election to the Whigs, but the move backfired, and Jackson defeated Clay handily in the 1832 election.

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pet banks

Pet banks were local banks, rather than the Second Bank of the United States. Following his reelection in 1832, Jackson had withdrawn the United States' funds from the Bank of the United States, and deposited them in pet banks.

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scrip

Scrip was currency printed by a bank (today's bills are printed by the federal government). Banks had an option to accept another bank's scrip in repayment for a loan, or to demand gold or silver ("specie") in repayment.

With coffers filled with cash, Jackson's pet bank issued scrip in large quantities.

100

What was the effect on the economy of Jackson's depositing federal money in pet banks?

With a plentiful supply of ready funds, the banks lent the money to speculators, who in turn increased the price of land. Inflation also became a problem, driven by the ready supply of available cash.

101

How did Jackson attempt to deal with the rising inflation that followed his deposit of federal funds in pet banks?


Jackson issued his Specie Circular, which required that purchases of government land be made in gold and silver, rather than paper currency.

Since banks were more willing to lend scrip, rather than gold and silver, this led to a sudden curtailment of credit, resulting in the Panic of 1837.

102

Who was blamed for the Panic of 1837?

The blame for the Panic and the depression which followed fell squarely upon Martin van Buren, Jackson's chosen successor. This was in spite of the fact that the Panic was largely due to Jackson's withdrawal of funds from the Second Bank of the United States, and the resulting Specie Circular.

103

By 1840, the new Whig party stood poised to beat Martin van Buren, and elevate William Henry Harrison to the Presidency. The Whig campaign was known as the "Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign." Why?

Much like the Democrats did with Jackson years before, the Whigs ran a well-organized campaign, emphasizing Harrison's log-cabin background and providing hard cider to voters.

Harrison, known as Old Tippecanoe for his military victory, was swept to victory on the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too!"

104

After William Henry Harrison died in office (after one month), John Tyler succeeded to the Presidency. What was unique about Tyler's position as President?

Tyler was the first Vice President to become President following the death of a sitting President. Nicknamed "His Accidency," John Tyler governed not as a caretaker, but as a viable President, setting the standard for future Vice Presidents in the same situation.

By the end of his term, Tyler was unpopular. Democrats felt him too similar to the Whigs, and Whigs felt him too close to the Democrats, especially after Tyler vetoed the Whig bank recharter.

John Tyler was later elected to the Confederate Congress, but died before taking office.

105

What was Jacksonian Democracy?

Jacksonian Democracy centered upon the participation of the public in elections and the government. Under Jackson's view any man could fill any office in the federal government. Jacksonian Democracy favored a strong President and a weak Congress.

The era of Jacksonian Democracy lasted until the 1850s, when slavery once more loomed large as a national political issue.

106

What were the Gag Rule Debates?

Between 1831-1836, William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists sent anti-slavery petitions to Congress. Rather than hear the petitions, in 1836 Congress voted to table any anti-slavery petition without debate, known as a gag rule. From 1836 until the gag rule was repealed in 1844, Congress repeatedly debated whether to keep the gag rule in place.

107

In Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), the Supreme Court was faced with a case in which New York State had issued an exclusive charter to one steamboat operator that conflicted with a charter issued by the federal government. How did the Court rule?

The Court ruled that under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution, the federal government had wide authority over interstate commerce (one of the steamboats traveled between New York and New Jersey), and the Federal charter overruled the state-level charter.

108

While the First Great Awakening focused primarily on those who already went to church regularly, at which group was the Second Great Awakening directed?

The Second Great Awakening was directed at the unchurched and consisted of revival meetings about conversion to Christianity. Preachers such as Peter Cartwright held their revival meetings outdoors in large tents instead of in churches.

109

Another religion begun in upstate New York was Mormonism, founded by ________ ________.


Joseph Smith

Smith claimed to have found golden plates containing a third Testament (in addition to the Old and New Testaments), under the direction of the angel Moroni.

110

Although Mormonism began in upstate New York, most Mormons ended up settling in Utah. Why?

Mormonism, especially the Mormon practice of polygamy, evoked great hostility. Mormons were driven from New York to Missouri and then to Illinois, where Joseph Smith was killed. Brigham Young led the Mormons to Utah, where it was hoped that their isolated location in the Utah desert would provide some degree of protection.

111

What was the Second Great Awakening's impact on the South?

The Second Great Awakening had a very minimal impact on the South; it was almost solely a Northern phenomenon.

112

What did the Shakers believe about relationships between the sexes?

The Shakers were a religious group that grew significantly during the Second Great Awakening, and believed in equality of the sexes. They preached complete celibacy, and relied on conversion for new members of their sect.

113

Transcendentalism

Transcendentalism was a philosophical movement that reached its peak in the 1830s and 1840s. Transcendentalists contended that mankind was basically good, and that organized religion and political parties were detrimental to individualism.

Transcendentalists argued that when individual people were self-reliant, they could be at their best, and from such self-reliant people ideal communities could be formed.

114

Written by Henry David Thoreau, what did Walden chronicle?

Walden is a record of Henry David Thoreau's experience living by himself in a small cabin on Walden Pond. More than a mere autobiography, in Walden, Thoreau describes his attempts to use his observations about the natural world to discover essential truths about life.

115

Utopia

Utopia is a state of perfect society on Earth.

During the 1840s, there were several attempts to create utopian communes, including Brook Farm (where Nathaniel Hawthorne resided for a short period), the Oneida Community in New York, and Iowa's Amana Community.

116

What did Thoreau argue in his essay Civil Disobedience?

Thoreau contended that individuals have a duty to disobey when the government enacts laws that violate one's conscience.

Thoreau was primarily motivated by the injustice of slavery and his own opposition to the Mexican-American War. Civil Disobedience influenced figures such as Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.

117

Instead of paintings of American Revolutionary scenes, or commissioned portraits, what did painters of the Hudson River School typically depict?

The Hudson River School artists primarily painted nature and wilderness scenes of the Hudson River Valley and the nearby Adirondack and Catskill Mountains. Artists such as Thomas Cole and Frederick Church specialized in depicting the grandeur of nature.

118

Who was America's first popular writer?

Washington Irving

Irving specialized in short stories, such as the Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip van Winkle, and gained a large audience on both sides of the Atlantic.

Irving was one of the first writers to write with the avowed purpose of entertainment, rather than to inform his audience.

119

Beginning shortly after the Revolutionary War, American architects drew inspiration from the buildings of the ancient world. What was this architectural movement called?

Greek Revival

American architects began featuring Greek columns, porticos, and marble in a style known as Greek Revival.

The White House, with its Greek columns and porticoed entrance, is an example of Greek Revival architecture.

120

Temperance

Temperence refers to a total abstention from alcohol.

Founded in the 1820s, the American Temperance Society equated alcohol with sin, and argued for its complete ban.

121

Which state banned liquor in 1851?

Maine

Although 13 other states followed Maine's lead, the temperance movement was largely overshadowed by the crusade against slavery.

122

Which two immigrant groups opposed the efforts of the temperance movement?

The Germans and the Irish. They viewed the temperance movement as anti-immigrant, and resented efforts to ban wine and liquor.

123

To what cause did Dorothea Dix dedicate her life?

Dix dedicated herself to reforming treatment of the mentally ill. Dix advocated for human treatment and separate asylums (the insane were typically housed with criminals prior to her efforts).

124

What prominent prison reform took place during the antebellum period?

The most prominent prison reform was a change in focus from punishment of the criminal to rehabilitation. The first prison focused on reform was Auburn, built in New York in 1821.

125

How did newly arrived Catholic immigrants, such as the Irish and Germans, respond to efforts to establish free public schools?

Concerned that the free public schools started by reformers such as Horace Mann would be used to proselytize their children with anti-Catholic teachings, German and Irish Catholics created their own schools.

126

What was the first institute of higher learning to admit women?

Oberlin College

Higher education for women was still unusual. Those women who learned more than mere reading and writing were typically upper class, and attended institutions that specialized in teaching social graces, rather than significant higher education.

Oberlin College was founded in 1833.

127

Republican Motherhood

Republican Motherhood stressed educating women with American democratic principles, so that those principles could be passed on to the next generation of Americans.

128

What was the Lowell System?

The Lowell System provided employment for thousands of women in the factory towns of Massachusetts. Women from nearby farms lived in factory dormitories for short periods, working long hours in miserable conditions to earn enough for a dowry or to help their families.

129

What was the cult of domesticity?

The cult of domesticity, prominent throughout much of the 19th century, held that women were the moral leaders of the home, and that it was women's role to ensure children were raised to follow democratic principles and to provide a quiet and relaxing environment for their husbands, separate from the sphere of industry.

130

Who called the Seneca Falls Convention?

The Seneca Falls Convention, the first organized women's rights conference, was called in 1848 by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Every prominent women's rights advocate (and quite a few men) attended.

131

How did the American Colonization Society propose to solve the issue of slavery?

The American Colonization Society suggested that the government purchase slaves and have them transported back to Africa.

The country of Liberia, Africa was founded by the American Colonization Society. Although men such as Lincoln supported the idea, it never caught on and only 12,000 blacks returned to Africa.

132

Who founded The Liberator, the first radical abolitionist newspaper, in 1833?

William Lloyd Garrison

Taking inspiration from Thoreau, Garrison declared "that which is not just is not law."

133

In 1831, _______ ______ led a band of slaves in a revolt in Virginia.

Nat Turner

Turner and his followers killed some 50-60 whites before being put down by state militia. His actions exacerbated fears of further slave rebellions and ended all discussion of slavery reform within the South.

134

The Underground Railroad

The Underground Railroad, directed by opponents to slavery such as Sojourner Truth, was a network that guided escaped slaves along secret routes and to safe houses until they reached freedom.