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Flashcards in Urban Society: Late 1800's Deck (48):

What two inventions led to the development of the skyscraper in the 1880s?

Elisha Otis's safety elevator made large buildings practical, while the use of the Bessemer Process to create a steel framework enabled buildings to exceed 10 stories.

The first skyscraper was the 10-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago. Skyscrapers proved exceptionally popular in New York City; driven by a lack of available space, New York City grew upwards instead of outwards.


Tammany Hall

Tammany Hall was a political organization within New York City's Democratic Party. Between the 1860s and the early 1900s, Tammany Hall was the headquarters of New York's machine politics, where political bosses such Boss Tweed distributed political patronage in exchange for votes and large amounts of cash.


What is machine politics?

In machine politics, a political organization is controlled by a "boss" or small leadership group, which can motivate a large "get out the vote" effort. The boss commands enough votes to maintain political and administrative control of a city, county, or state.

Due to their electoral control, political bosses can distribute government positions and government construction projects, often in exchange for bribes or political support.


Who was Boss Tweed?

Boss Tweed was a notorious political boss in New York City in the 1860s and 1870s. Through his control of Tammany Hall, Tweed was able to bilk New York City out of at least $45 million. Most of Tweed's support came from newly arrived Irish immigrants, whom he courted by distributing food and clothing.

Tweed and other political bosses represented the corruption that led Mark Twain to call the period "The Gilded Age."


What artist proved instrumental in bringing down Boss Tweed's political machine in New York City?

Thomas Nast

Nast's political cartoons in Harpers Weekly, a popular magazine of the day, spurred an investigation into Tweed's "Ring" (his group of supporters). Auditors of the city books discovered millions in fraudulent charges.

Tweed fled to Spain, but was captured when Spaniards recognized Tweed's face from Nast's cartoons.


What term did novelist Mark Twain coin to describe the political corruption that characterized American government following the Civil War?

The period became known as the Gilded Age, derived from a novel Twain published in 1873 about political corruption.


How did Stalwart Republicans and Half-Breed Republicans differ?

Led by New York's Roscoe Conkling, the Stalwart Republicans supported the spoils system, under which elected officials distributed jobs to friends and supporters.

In the elections of 1876 and 1880, Stalwart Republicans were opposed by Half-Breed Republicans, who favored civil service reform. Both Rutherford B. Hayes (the 1876 Republican nominee) and James A. Garfield (the 1880 Republican nominee) were Half-Breeds.


What significant political change did Rutherford B. Hayes advocate during his Presidency?

President from 1877 to 1881, Hayes advocated civil service reform, setting him at odds with Stalwart Republicans, who continued to support the spoils system.

Hayes's most prominent reform was to clean up the New York Customs House, emblematic of the spoils system. Hayes's efforts included firing Chester A. Arthur, the head of the Customs House.


How did President Hayes react to French attempts to build a transoceanic canal across Central America in the 1870s?

Hayes contended that "The true policy of the United States as to a canal... is either a canal under American control, or no canal."

Hayes need not have worried, as the French plan was impracticable and failed miserably. Nevertheless, he anticipated American interest in a canal during the early 20th century.


Why was Chester A. Arthur chosen as James Garfield's running mate in the 1880 presidential campaign?

While Garfield was a Half-Breed Republican and in support of civil service reform, Arthur was chosen to appeal to Stalwart Republicans, who supported the spoils system.


What did the Pendleton Act (1883) establish?

The Pendleton Act began the decline of the spoils system on the national level by providing selection of government employees based on competitive exams, rather than ties to political figures.

Ironically, the Act was signed by President Chester A. Arthur, who reached the office after the death of President Garfield. Arthur, a Stalwart Republican, was himself a product of the spoils system.


Who were the Mugwumps?

The Mugwumps were Republicans who were dissatisfied with the nomination of James G. Blaine as the Republican nominee for President in 1884. Believing that Blaine was corrupt, the Mugwumps threw their support behind Democratic Party nominee Grover Cleveland.

Mugwump support in the state of New York swung the 1884 election to Cleveland, who proved to be the only Democrat to become President between the Civil War and 1912.


President Grover Cleveland continued the process of civil service reform by making what announcement after his election in 1884?

Cleveland, a Democrat, announced that he would fire no Republican officeholder who was doing his job well. The announcement disappointed many Democrats, who had been out of office for decades.

Cleveland also reduced the size of several federal agencies, which had become bloated with inefficient appointees.


How did President Cleveland invoke the Monroe Doctrine in a dispute with Great Britain?

During his first term, Venezuela and Great Britain's colony of Guinea became embroiled in a boundary dispute. Venezuela asked for American arbitration, which Britain initially refused.

Invoking the Monroe Doctrine, Cleveland sent a sharply written letter to Britain, who then agreed to arbitration.


In the 1888 presidential election, Benjamin Harrison defeated Grover Cleveland. What did Harrison and the Republicans advocate?

Harrison and the Republicans advocated a high tariff, which was favored by Northerners who wanted to protect American industry from less expensive foreign manufactured goods.

They also supported the free coinage of silver, which was popular among farmers and laborers.


Both Presidents Arthur and Harrison supported the modernization of which branch of the armed services?

the Navy

Under Arthur's administration, the Office of Naval Intelligence and the Naval Academy were established. Harrison increased the size of the Navy, adding seven armored cruisers. Prior to Harrison's increase, the United States had only one modern armored cruiser.


In 1882, Congress banned immigration from ______ for a period of 10 years, which was extended an additional 10 years in 1892.


The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed in 1882 under pressure from Western nativists. In the West, Chinese miners and laborers made up a large proportion of the workforce, filling jobs which Western workers felt belonged to them


President Harrison continued the trend of American foreign policy to look towards what global region?

United States foreign policy continued to focus on Central and South America. Secretary James G. Blaine convoked a Council of American States, which met regularly to resolve political issues in the Western Hemisphere.


In 1891, two American sailors (who may have been drunk) were stabbed outside a bar in Valparaiso, Chile. How did President Harrison respond?

Harrison demanded that Chile apologize, but the Chileans refused and Harrison threatened war. Secretary of State James G. Blaine, who'd been severely ill, returned and calmed the situation. Chile agreed to pay nominal reparations.


Making good on their electoral promise, Republicans in Congress passed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. What did the Act accomplish?

The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 obligated the government to purchase a minimum amount of silver each month, reducing the supply of silver in the open market, and driving up its price.

Farmers hoped the Act would spur the economy and cause inflation, which would in turn enable farmers (many of whom were heavily in debt) to pay off their debt with less expensive dollars.


In 1890, at the same time they passed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, Congressional Republicans passed the McKinley Tariff. What did the Tariff establish?

The McKinley Tariff, proposed by future President William McKinley, increased tariff rates to almost 50%.

The McKinley Tariff was strongly supported by Republican protectionists, who advocated protecting American businesses and workers within the country by restricting or regulating trade with foreign nations.


What was the "Billion-Dollar Congress"?

From 1889 to 1891, during the first two years of President Benjamin Harrison's administration, Congress passed the first ever billion-dollar budget. The budget included pensions for non-combatants who had served in the Civil War, substantial increases in appropriations for the Navy, and other lavish spending.


What was the Populist Party?

Active during the late 19th century, the Populists fielded James G. Weaver as a Presidential candidate in 1892. The Populists sought to build a coalition of urban workers and farmers in the Midwest, and appealed to supporters of the Greenback Party, union workers, and those who belonged to the Farmers' Alliance. Over one million voters cast ballots for Populist candidates in 1892, and Weaver carried four states.

As part of their 1892 platform, the Populists adopted the Ocala Declaration.


What significant reforms did the Populists propose?

Drawing support from laborers, farmers, and reformers, the Populists proposed a graduated income tax, restrictions on immigration, public ownership of railroads, telephones and telegraphs, and the direct election of senators.

Prior to the passage of the 17th Amendment in 1912, senators were elected by state legislatures, rather than by the voters at large.


During the 1870s, most immigrants to the United States arrived from the countries of Northern Europe. During the 1880s and 1890s, from where did most European immigrants arrive?

Most new immigrants were from Italy, or were Jews from Eastern Europe.

Increasingly, these immigrants clustered in their own neighborhoods, such as Little Italy in Manhattan, or University City in St. Louis.


What two inventions led to the development of the skyscraper in the 1880s?

Elisha Otis's safety elevator made large buildings practical, while the use of the Bessemer Process to create a steel framework enabled buildings to exceed 10 stories.

The first skyscraper was the 10-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago. Skyscrapers proved exceptionally popular in New York City; driven by a lack of available space, New York City grew upwards instead of outwards.


Grover Cleveland's biographer, Allan Nevins, called the 1892 presidential election "the cleanest, quietest, and most creditable in the memory of the post-war generation." What two issues were prominent in the campaign?

Once again, the issues of tariffs and silver coinage took the forefront. As an economic conservative, Cleveland was against free silver, and won a resounding victory. Cleveland was aided in part by dissatisfaction with the McKinley Tariff, which had exorbitantly raised prices.


What was Coxey's Army?

Coxey's Army, led by Populist James A. Coxey, was a group of thousands of unemployed men who marched on Washington in 1894 as a result of the depression.

Coxey's Army demanded a public works program, but following their leader's arrest, the group disbanded.


In The Rise of Silas Lapham and A Modern Instance, _____ _____ ______ examined the role of wealth and industrialization on the American family.

William Dean Howells

Howells adopted the literary style of realism, which sought to depict life as it was, with an emphasis on everyday activities and experiences rather than a romanticized depiction of life.


Much like the novels of William Dean Howells, artists such as James Whistler, Winslow Homer, and Thomas Eakins adopted an artistic style known as _____.


Whistler specialized in paintings that emphasized color over subject matter. Homer emphasized true-to-life pictures of nature, while Eakins depicted the everyday life of working men and women.


Beginning in the 1860s and continuing until the birth of radio in the 1920s, what was the most popular form of entertainment in the United States?


A vaudeville show was typically a variety show, with several unrelated acts, including acrobats, animals, singers, and comedians.

Several of the early radio and television stars got their start in vaudeville, including Burns and Allen, Bob Hope, and Jack Benny.


The most popular of the Wild West shows was led by _____ _____.

Buffalo Bill

William "Buffalo Bill" Cody's shows featured Indians, sharpshooters such as Annie Oakley, and depictions of stage coach robberies. The most popular of the Wild West shows, Buffallo Bill and his troop toured North America and Europe to sold-out performances.

Buffalo Bill was the consummate showman. One of his biggest publicity stunts was to have his Indians arrive in Spain on October 12, 1892, the 400th anniversary of Columbus's arrival in the Americas.


Social Gospel

Proponents of the Social Gospel contended that it was their Christian duty to improve the lives of the less fortunate. They contended that Christian ethics should be applied to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as alcoholism, crime, racial issues, slums, poor hygiene, and inadequate schools.

Prominent Social Gospel advocates included Jane Addams and Walter Rauschenbusch.


What was Hull House?

Founded by Social Gospel advocate Jane Addams, Hull House aided recent immigrants in Chicago. Hull House provided English lessons, childcare to working mothers, and children's playgrounds.

Settlement houses like Hull House proliferated throughout the country's major metropolitan areas during the 19th and early 20th centuries.


What is the Salvation Army?

Arriving in America from Great Britain in 1879, the Salvation Army adapted military organization toward caring for the homeless. The Salvation Army proved especially effective at aiding the poor and preaching the gospel in the rapidly expanding urban areas.


Mary Baker Eddy founded the Church of Christ, Scientist in the late 19th century. What did Eddy contend?

Eddy and the Christian Scientists, as they came to be known, contended that good health resulted from proper thinking about the "Father Mother God." Christian Scientists commonly refused medical treatment, believing that disease resulted from ignorance, fear, or sin, and could be healed solely by recourse to prayer.


Who was Dwight Moody?

Moody was the founder of Chicago's Moody Bible Institute, which specialized in training ministers to evangelize the poor in urban areas and adapting Christian teachings to city life.


Between 1861 and 1888, schools such as Vassar, Wellesley, and Mount Holyoke were founded. What did these schools represent?

These new schools represented an emphasis on women's education. Prior to the founding of these all-female colleges and universities, higher education for women had focused mainly on the development of social graces. Schools such as Wellesley focused on a curriculum of intellectual rigor, and for the first time advanced education was available to women.


Who were the leaders of the National American Woman Suffrage Association?

The National American Woman Suffrage Association's leaders were Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.

The Association was the result of the merger of the American Women's Suffrage Association and the National Women's Suffrage Association in 1890, and continued to advocate for the extension of voting rights to women.


During the late 19th century, women were still denied a vote in most areas, but did achieve suffrage in what section of the country?

In many Western states, women received the right to vote, at least in presidential elections. Wyoming allowed women to vote in the territorial constitution in 1869, and continued to allow female suffrage after becoming a state. Utah followed suit as did Arizona, California, and other states within the next few decades.


What vice did the Women's Christian Temperance Union target?

The Women's Christian Temperance Union targeted alcohol and by the late 1890s had almost half a million members. A related entity, the Anti-Saloon League, convinced 21 states to ban saloons and bars.

To appeal to men, female temperance workers championed the slogan, "Lips that touch liquor shall never touch mine."


In 1873, Congress passed the Comstock Law, which prevented what activity?

The Comstock Law, championed by Anthony Comstock, prevented the mailing of "obscene" materials via U.S. mail.

As a postal inspector, Comstock took it upon himself to determine whether materials were obscene, and included in his list not only pornography but materials discussing abortion and birth control.


In 1890, Alfred Mahan wrote The Influence of Sea Power on History. What did Mahan argue?

The head of the United States Naval College, Mahan contended that any army would eventually succumb to a blockade and thus sea power, and not a strong army alone, was imperative for national survival.

Mahan's work resulted in renewed enthusiasm for a strong U.S. Navy, which in the 1880s was weaker than the navies of countries such as Chile and Italy. A strong navy led to U.S. victories in the Spanish-American War, and the dispatch of the Great White Fleet.


What is the name of photographer and social reformer Jacob Riis's most influential work?

How the Other Half Lives

Published in 1890, How the Other Half Lives contained photographs of the living conditions in New York's tenements and slums. The shock value of Riis's photographs drew attention to the squalid living conditions of the "other half."


What were Carnegie's views about being a philanthropist?

Carnegie suggested that it would be damaging to give charity to the poor directly, but that by creating libraries and other such institutions, the wealthy could provide opportunities for “the aspiring” and “thoughtful and earnest men.” More direct charity, he implied, would interfere with the “development of society.”


What were the ideas of the Social Gospel?

Social Gospel called on religious people to engage in reform work and activism


What were the views of the Populists' in regards to the economy?

Populists opposed the accumulation of great wealth by individuals and sought to create a new economic system in which resources were more equally distributed.


What was the role of middle class women in urban cities during the Gilded Age?

Middle-class women, like Jane Addams and others, played a major role in carrying out reform efforts in the industrial cities of the late 19th century. These women typically sought to do more than live as wives and mothers and found social settlements and other reform organizations provided the best outlet for their interests.