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Flashcards in Reconstruction Deck (65):
1

In December 1865, the first constitutional amendment in 60 years was ratified by 2/3 of the states. What did the Thirteenth Amendment do?

The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery and involuntary servitude except as punishment for a crime.

2

What was Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan?

Lincoln proposed that for a state to be readmitted to the Union, it had to fulfill two requirements:

agree to abolish slavery
10% of the total number of voters from 1860 had to take an oath of future loyalty to the United States
By 1863, the states of Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana fulfilled Lincoln's requirements and applied for readmission.

3

Radical Republicans

Vehement abolitionists, the Radical Republicans favored harsh treatment for the former Confederacy, and advocated strong protections for newly freed blacks, such as the Freedman's Bureau.

Radical Republicans opposed the more moderate stances towards the Confederacy advocated by Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson.

4

In 1863, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Tennessee had fulfilled the requirements of Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan, and applied for readmission to the Union. Their application was denied in Congress. Why?

The Radical Republicans, who controlled Congress, thought that Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan was too lenient, and denied the three applications for readmission.

5

What did the Wade-Davis Bill (1864) require regarding the readmission of former Confederate States?

The Wade-Davis Bill required that, in order to be readmitted, 50% of a former Confederate state's voters had to take the Ironclad Oath, swearing that they had never taken up arms against the Union, nor supported the Confederacy. Effectively, the Bill sought to keep ex-Confederates from voting and controlling the readmitted states.

6

How did Abraham Lincoln react to the harsh terms of the Wade-Davis Bill (1864)?

Lincoln exercised a pocket veto over the Wade-Davis Bill (meaning that he neither approved nor vetoed it formally, instead letting the Congressional term expire).

Lincoln opposed the Bill's harsh Ironclad Oath, which required swearing that one had never taken up arms against the Union, nor given aid to the Confederacy. Lincoln preferred that Southerners swear an oath of future loyalty.

7

How did President Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction Plan differ from Lincoln's?

In addition to Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan, Johnson proposed three further requirements for readmitted states:

ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment
repudiation of Confederate debts
renunciation of secession
Much as Lincoln's plan had, Johnson's plan angered Radical Republicans in Congress, who felt it was too lenient on the former Confederate states.

8

Black Codes

In 1865, legislatures in the formerly Confederate states passed Black Codes, which were laws that prohibited blacks from:

borrowing money to purchase land
renting land
testifying against whites in court
serving on juries when a white defendant was on trial
The Black Codes also established a form of semi-bondage which deemed many freedman as vagrants and forced them to work

9

sharecropping

Under sharecropping, a landowner provided land, seed, and needed farm implements to poor black and white farmers in exchange for a portion of the harvested crop (usually 50%).

Although sharecropping gave poor farmers access to land, it allowed for little upward mobility.

10

By late 1865, all 11 of the former Confederate states had met the lenient requirements of Johnson's Reconstruction Plan, and sent representatives to Congress. How did Congress react?

Congress, and especially the Radical Republicans, were furious, especially since none of the new state constitutions extended voting rights to blacks and had established Black Codes. Further, many of the elected Congressmen were former Confederate leaders, including Alexander Stephens, the Confederate Vice President.

11

What was the "Swing Around the Circle"?

The "Swing Around the Circle" was the nickname given to President Johnson's speaking tour in 1866. Johnson sought public support for his lenient Reconstruction policies and denounced Radical Republicans.

12

What was the result of the 1866 congressional elections?

Radical Republicans were swept into office, ensuring that a hard line would continue to be maintained against the former Confederate states.

Johnson failed in his attempts to persuade the public to support his lenient policy in his "Swing Around the Circle" tour. For the remainder of his Presidency, Johnson would face staunch Congressional opposition.

13

In response to the South's Black Codes, Congress passed the first _____ _____ Act in 1866.

Civil Rights

The Civil Rights Act of 1866 deemed that blacks were citizens, directly contradicting the Dred Scott decision. Concerned that the Supreme Court would deem the Act unconstitutional, its terms were later embodied in the Fourteenth Amendment.

President Johnson vetoed the bill, further angering Republicans in Congress.

14

What did the Fourteenth Amendment establish?

Adopted in 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment:

defined citizenship to include all persons born or naturalized in the United States
extended the Constitution to the states, meaning that states could no longer violate rights embodied in the Constitution
repudiated Confederate debt
barred former Confederates from holding elective office

15

What prompted Congress to pass the Military Reconstruction Act in 1866?

Due to Southern opposition, the Fourteenth Amendment initially failed to be ratified by the requisite 2/3 of the states. After the 1866 election, Congress passed the Military Reconstruction Act, which designated 10 of the 11 former Confederate states as military districts under military control. Johnson vetoed the Act.

The Military Reconstruction Act held that to be readmitted, states must adopt the Fourteenth Amendment, and provide for black voting rights.

The 11th state was Tennessee, which had ratified the 14th Amendment.

16

Why did the House vote to impeach President Johnson?

In 1867, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act, which required the President to get Senate approval before removing a cabinet member. The Act was designed to protect Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, a Radical Republican ally.

Johnson ignored the Act and fired Stanton. The House voted to impeach Johnson, but by a single vote the Senate voted against his removal from office.

17

Who did the Republicans nominate at the 1866 Republican Convention?

The Republicans backed Ulysses S. Grant, a popular war hero with no political record. The Republican platform endorsed many Radical Republican policies, including harsh treatment for the South.

18

In the 1868 presidential election, Grant defeated Democratic Party nominee Horatio Seymour by only 300,000 votes. Which group of voters formed the deciding margin?

Grant could never have won without the 500,000 votes provided by newly enfranchised freedmen. The importance of freedmen to their continued political dominance convinced even conservative Republicans to vigorously defend black voting rights.

To further protect black voters, Congress passed the Fifteenth Amendment.

19

What conduct was the Fifteenth Amendment (1869) designed to protect?

The Fifteenth Amendment was designed to protect the right to vote, and disallowed any state to abridge voting "on account of race, color, creed, or previous condition of servitude."

In part, Congress passed the Fifteenth Amendment in response to Grant's narrow victory in the 1868 election, which had been due to the 500,000 votes Grant received from black voters.

20

How did suffragettes react to the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment?

Many suffragettes espoused abolition and supported the granting of civil rights to blacks. They used the Amendment's passage to argue that they deserved the same rights which the nation had extended to former slaves.

21

_____ were Northerners who came South after the War to operate the Reconstruction governments; _____ were Southerners who cooperated with them

Carpetbaggers; Scalawags

Both groups met with widespread derision from the local populace.

The term "Carpetbaggers" refers to carpetbags, a popular suitcase of the time. Critics contended that Carpetbaggers tossed their few possessions in a bag, then headed South to take advantage of the defeated Confederacy.

22

Union Leagues

The Union Leagues were organizations in various Southern cities during Reconstruction, mostly headed by Northern blacks. In addition to providing education and political discussions, the Union Leagues registered voters and encouraged them to vote for Republican candidates.

23

What was the Ku Klux Klan?

Founded by former Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest, the Klan sought to intimidate newly freed blacks by lynchings, whippings, and burning black-owned buildings. The Klan operated in secret, with membership wearing distinctive white hoods.

In response to the Klan's activities (and those of related entities), Congress passed the Force Acts of 1870 and 1871, which made actions such as the Klan's federal offenses.

24

In 1872, Congress passed the _____ _____, which granted to all but top-ranking Confederates their civil rights, including the right to vote.

Amnesty Act

Re-enfranchised voters throughout the South promptly elected Democrats to their state governments.

25

Who ran against Grant in the presidential campaign of 1872?

Horace Greeley

Breaking with their party over political corruption, Liberal Republicans nominated Northern newspaperman Horace Greeley, a move which was also endorsed by Democrats.

During the campaign, the Republicans relied upon "waving the bloody shirt," a tactic they'd employed since 1866, by referring to those who had fought and died in the Civil War to justify their re-election.

26

What was the Freedman's Bureau?

Active between 1865 and 1869, the Freedman's Bureau was a federal agency that assisted newly freed blacks.

The Freedman's Bureau provided food, clothing, and education, and over a four-year period, taught some 200,000 blacks to read, founded several black colleges, and built 3,000 schools.

27

Who was Hiram Revels?

Hiram Revels was the first black person elected to Congress, and represented Mississippi in Congress in 1870 and 1871. A second black Congressman, Blanche K. Bruce, represented Mississippi from 1875-1880.

Revels was elected to fill Jefferson Davis's former seat.

28

What led to the establishment of black colleges during Reconstruction?

The earliest black colleges, such as Fisk, Morehouse, and Howard, were established to train ministers and teachers to staff the new churches and schools proliferating in the South.

29

What impact did Reconstruction have on religion among the Southern black community?

During Reconstruction, many blacks left churches dominated or monitored by whites, and joined black churches in large numbers. Most religious blacks joined the African Methodist Church or the Negro Baptist Church.

30

What was Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan?

Lincoln proposed that for a state to be readmitted to the Union, it had to fulfill two requirements:

agree to abolish slavery
10% of the total number of voters from 1860 had to take an oath of future loyalty to the United States
By 1863, the states of Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana fulfilled Lincoln's requirements and applied for readmission.

31

Who were the candidates of the two major political parties in the 1876 presidential election?

The Democrats chose Samuel J. Tilden, a prominent Northern reformer and a former New York Governor.

Republicans chose Rutherford B. Hayes, a Civil War General, Congressman, and Governor from Ohio (though many Republicans supported Grant for a third term).

32

Who won the popular vote in the 1876 presidential election?

Samuel J. Tilden, the Democratic Party's candidate, won the popular vote. Tilden received 184 electoral votes to Rutherford B. Hayes's 165 electoral votes. 185 votes were needed for election.

The results from three militarily occupied Southern states (Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina), however, were disputed, as was one electoral vote from Oregon, for a total of 20 votes. These 20 votes were eventually awarded to Hayes to secure his winning the election.

33

In the election of 1876, how did Congress resolve the impasse between Samuel Tilden and Rutherford Hayes for the disputed electoral votes?

Congress created a special commission, composed of seven Republicans, seven Democrats, and one independent.

The membership of the commission included five members of the Senate, five of the House of Representatives, and five members of the Supreme Court.

34

How did the 1876 Electoral Commission resolve the election between Hayes and Tilden?

In addition to seven Democrats and seven Republicans, the Commission contained one independent who would be the deciding vote. The independent was to be chosen by the two Democrat and two Republican members of the Supreme Court, with the intention that Justice David Davis would be chosen.

Immediately before the Commission met, however, Illinois elected Davis to the Senate. The remaining members of the Court were all Republicans and the Commission resolved on Hayes in a straight party line vote.

35

What was the Compromise of 1877?

The Compromise of 1877 was a purported unwritten agreement between Democrats and Republicans, in which Republicans agreed to end Reconstruction and military occupation of the South in exchange for which Republicans received the Presidency.

The Compromise has never been proven by historians, and Rutherford B. Hayes's involvement is unclear.

36

How did President Andrew Johnson react to French intervention in Mexican affairs?

Napoleon III of France took advantage of the Civil War to establish Maximilian I as Emperor of Mexico. President Johnson arranged for a blockade of Mexico to prevent aid from France, and provided arms for Maximilian's opponents. In 1867, Maximilian was shot by a firing squad.

A French defeat at the hands of an ill-equipped Mexican force took place at Puebla on May 5, 1862, the Cinco de Mayo.

37

Who arranged for the U.S. to purchase Alaska from the Russians in 1867 for $7.2 million?

William Seward arranged the purchase from the Russians, who were anxious to arrange the purchase, concerned that the British would take over the territory anyway. Congress approved the purchase in part due to gratitude for Russian support during the Civil War.

For years, Alaska was ridiculed as Seward's Folly or Seward's Icebox, until gold was found there in the late 1890s.

38

Andrew Johnson

Southern democrat chosen by Abraham Lincoln to be Vice President in an effort to keep the Union together prior to the Civil War, becomes President after Lincoln is assassinated

39

Amnesty

a pardon; President Lincoln offered a pardon to the South to help reunite the country

40

Carpetbaggers

derogatory name used by Southerners for Northerners who moved down South to help freedmen in the South

41

Scalawags

derogatory name used by Southerners against other Southerners who backed the Union and supported Reconstruction

42

Sharecropping

a farming system that kept many southern farmers in debt since it paid for use of land with crops; made it nearly impossible for farmers to get out of poverty

43

Jim Crow laws

Laws passed in the South to enforce segregation; laws required segregated public transportation, schools, cemeteries, parks and other public places

44

Plessey v. Ferguson

Supreme Court Case of 1896 in which Supreme Court ruled separate but equal was constitutional

45

Booker T. Washington

former slave, political leader, educator & reformer who encouraged newly freed African Americans to gain economic independence by learning trades and getting an education and to peacefully accept discrimination for the time being

46

W.E.B. DuBois

leader in the black protest movement of Reconstruction who urged newly freed African Americans to protest and rise against discrimination; helped establish the NAACP

47

Examples of how Southerners used black codes to deny African Americans their rights

They denied African Americans many civil rights like the right to vote, act as jurors in trails, take certain jobs, own land or have a gun

48

Compare and contrast Reconstruction's successes and failures

Successes were the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments, giving freedom and citizenship to African Americans, public schools and industries were expanded in the South. Slavery was over. Failures: after Reconstruction southern states passed new laws again restricting the rights of African Americans, they tried to prevent blacks from voting

49

What did General William T. Sherman want for all Freedmen?

40 acres and a mule- a land grant given to former slaves

50

What event signaled the end of Reconstruction?

The ordering of federal troops out of the South, which were there to protect the newly freed former slaves.

51

Crédit Mobilier

A dummy construction company formed in the 1860s by corrupt Union Pacific Railroad officials who hired themselves as contractors at inflated rates to gain huge profits. The railroad executives also bribed dozens of congressmen and members of Ulysses S. Grant’s cabinet, including Vice President Schuyler Colfax. Eventually exposed in 1872, the affair forced many politicians to resign and became the worst scandal that occurred during Grant’s presidency.

52

Depression of 1873

An economic depression—caused by bad loans and overspeculation in railroads and manufacturing—that turned the North’s attention away from Reconstruction. Poor whites and blacks were hit hardest, and unemployment soared as high as 15 percent. The depression helped southern Democrats in their quest to regain political prominence in the South and diminished the reelection prospects for Republican candidates, who advocated hard-money policies and little immediate economic relief. Indeed, Democrats swept the congressional elections of 1874 and regained the majority in the House of Representatives for the first time since 1856, effectively ending Radical Reconstruction.

53

First Reconstruction Act

A bill, passed by Radical Republicans in Congress in 1867, that treated Southern states as divided territories. Sometimes called the Military Reconstruction Act or the Reconstruction Act, the First Reconstruction Act divided the South into five districts, each governed by martial law. It was the first of a series of harsher bills that the Radicals passed that year.

54

Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871

A congressional bill passed in response to widespread Ku Klux Klan violence throughout the South. The Klan had been intimidating, beating, and murdering blacks in every southern state since 1866, and many blacks, though newly enfranchised, avoided the polls out of fear for their lives. Although violence spiraled out of control by the late 1860s and early 1870s because state legislatures turned a blind eye, the Ku Klux Klan Act restored order in the South in time for the elections of 1872.

55

Liberal Republicans

A political party that was formed prior to the elections of 1872 by Republicans who disagreed with moderate and Radical Republican ideologies. The Liberal Republicans campaigned on a platform of government reform, reduced government spending, and anti-corruption measures. They also wanted to end military Reconstruction in the South and bring about a swift restoration of the Union.

56

Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction

Abraham Lincoln’s 1863 Reconstruction proposal to boost support for the war in the North and persuade the South to surrender. The proclamation outlined Lincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan, which declared that secessionist states could be readmitted into the Union after 10 percent of voters swore their allegiance to the U.S. government.

57

Slaughterhouse Cases

A series of Supreme Court cases (involving a New Orleans slaughterhouse) that effectively rendered the Fourteenth Amendment useless. The justices ruled that the amendment protected citizens from rights infringements only on a federal level, not on a state level. This decision allowed state legislatures to suspend blacks’ legal and civil rights as outlined in the Constitution.

58

“Swing Around the Circle”

The name for a group of speeches in which President Andrew Johnson blamed Radical Republicans for the slowness of Reconstruction and race riots in the South after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 . Johnson traveled across the country, speaking out against Republicans, pro-war Democrats, blacks, and anyone else who challenged him. Consequently, his often-abrasive speeches further tarnished the Democratic Party’s already scarred reputation and persuaded many northerners to vote Republican in the congressional elections of 1866.

59

Tenure of Office Act

A bill that Congress passed during Andrew Johnson’s presidency that required Johnson to consult Congress before dismissing any congressionally appointed government official. When Johnson ignored Congress and fired Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, the Radical Republicans in the House impeached Johnson on the grounds that he had violated the Tenure of Office Act. Although Johnson technically did violate the act, the Radicals impeached him primarily out of revenge, angry that he had excluded Congress from the Reconstruction process. The Senate later acquitted Johnson, so he was not removed from office.

60

United States v. Cruikshank

An 1876 Supreme Court case that severely restricted Congress’s ability to enforce the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871. The Court ruled that only states, not the U.S. government, had the right to prosecute Klansmen under the law. Without the threat of federal prosecution, the Ku Klux Klan and other racist whites had free reign to terrorize blacks throughout the South.

61

Whiskey Ring

A group of government officials who embezzled millions of dollars of excise tax revenue from the U.S. Treasury. The Whiskey Ring scandal damaged President Ulysses S. Grant’s reputation and affected central figures in the White House—the president’s own personal secretary was indicted in the conspiracy but was acquitted after Grant testified to his innocence.

62

Election of 1876

The United States presidential election of 1876 was one of the most disputed presidential elections in American history. Samuel J. Tilden of New York outpolled Ohio's Rutherford B. Hayes in the popular vote, and had 184 electoral votes to Hayes' 165, with 20 votes uncounted. These 20 electoral votes were in dispute: in three states (Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina), each party reported its candidate had won the state, while in Oregon one elector was declared illegal (as an "elected or appointed official") and replaced. The 20 disputed electoral votes were ultimately awarded to Hayes after a bitter legal and political battle, giving him the victory.

Many historians believe that an informal deal was struck to resolve the dispute: the Compromise of 1877. In return for the Democrats' acquiescence in Hayes' election, the Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South, ending Reconstruction. The Compromise effectively ceded power in the Southern states to the Democratic Redeemers.1

63

Redemption Reconstruction

term used by Southerners during post-Reconstruction era when the Democratic Party re-assumed their control of local and state governments

64

Charles Sumner

He was the aggressive abolitionist who was physically assaulted by Preston Brooks after making a strong antislavery speech. He was one of the leaders of the radical Republicans' Reconstruction program and was also an active participant in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.

65

Solid South

After Reconstruction, the South became extremely Democratic. Once they gained control, the Democrats cut back expenses, wiped out social programs, lowered taxes, and limited the rights of tenants and sharecroppers. These white southerners remained a major force in national politics well into the 20th century.