Flashcards in Amino Acids Deck (48):
What are proteins polymers of?
Transports oxygen in red blood cells
Stores oxygen in muscle
Forms fibers in a supporting matrix for connective tissue
Organizes the formation of mineral crystals in enamel
Forms fibers that provide the strength for skin
Dextransucrase (an enzyme)
catalyzes the formation of the polymer, dextran, that is a component of dental plaque
What is the common structure of an amino acid?
carboxylic acid group
What is the one exception to the common structure of the amino acid?
Proline; it has a carboxylic acid, imino group (HN) and and R
In glycine the R group is
Only L-amino acids are
Is an imino group polar or non-polar?
Are acids polar or nonpolar?
Are bases polar or nonpolar?
What are your non polar amino acids?
Which nonpolar amino acids are aliphatic?
What sort of bonds can form between two cysteines?
Which amino acids are acidic?
Which amino acids are basic?
Which amino acid is the most basic?
Which amino acid is the least basic?
Which amino acids are polar and uncharged and both have aliphatic amides?
Which amino acids are polar uncharged and have aliphatic hydroxyls?
Which amino acids are polar and uncharged?
The more polar the side chain is, the higher the solubility in water is, why?
Charges on water molecules bind to charge on the amino acid side chain
Aliphatic - amino acids?
Ala, Val, Leu, Ile
Aromatic - amino acids?
Phe, Tyr, Trp
Sulfur-containing - amino acids
Met, Cys, (Cys-Cys)
How does one get scurvy?
Vitamin C deficiency
What is prolyl and lysyl hydroxyl hydroxylases cofactor?
What is the most abundant protein in teeth?
What is also a component of collagen?
What symptoms accompany scurvy?
Spongy gums and hair problems
Vitamin-K dependent carboxylase requires which cofactor?
Glutamate with carboxylase turns into carboxy-glutamte turns into a
Blood clotting factor
Serine + NTP -> Phosphoserine + NDP
Cellular signaling via hormones can induce the phosphorylation of serine residues on target enzymes, leading to their activation. Similarly, phosphorylase catalyzes phosphate-induced gylcogen degradation
Phosphothreonine + phosphotyrosine =
Hydroxylation of proline and lysine need what cofactor?
Carboxylation of glutamic acid needs what?
What are structure breaking amino acids?
Glycine - is without side chain, which causes high thermal motion in the neighborhood of glycine
Proline: is rigidly in a conformation inconsistent with some protein structures
2,3-bisphosphoglyverate (BPG) does what?
reduces affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen
What charge is BPG?
Multiple charged interaction between ________________ and two of four hemoglobin subunits reduce the affinity for oxygen
What will happen if you increase the concentration of 2,3 - bisphosphoglycerate in the red blood cell?
You will promote O2 release or unloading to the target tissues typically at low O2 partial pressures
By how much will 2,3 bisphosphoglycerate increase at an elevationof 15,000 ft?
What is the only amino acid found in proteins that does not exist as D-L- isomer?