Amino Acids Flashcards Preview

DHHD 1 > Amino Acids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Amino Acids Deck (48):
1

What are proteins polymers of?

Amino acids

2

Hemoglobin

Transports oxygen in red blood cells

3

Myoglobin

Stores oxygen in muscle

4

Collagen

Forms fibers in a supporting matrix for connective tissue

5

Amelogenin

Organizes the formation of mineral crystals in enamel

6

Keratin

Forms fibers that provide the strength for skin

7

Dextransucrase (an enzyme)

catalyzes the formation of the polymer, dextran, that is a component of dental plaque

8

What is the common structure of an amino acid?

amino group
side-chain
carboxylic acid group

9

What is the one exception to the common structure of the amino acid?

Proline; it has a carboxylic acid, imino group (HN) and and R

10

In glycine the R group is

H

11

Only L-amino acids are

Proteins

12

Is an imino group polar or non-polar?

non-polar

13

Are acids polar or nonpolar?

polar

14

Are bases polar or nonpolar?

nonpolar

15

What are your non polar amino acids?

Alanine
Glycine
Cysteine
Leucine
Valine
Isoleucine
Methionine
Proline
Phenylalanine
Tryptophan

16

Which nonpolar amino acids are aliphatic?

Alanine
Valine
Leucine
Isoleucine

17

What sort of bonds can form between two cysteines?

Disulfide bonds

18

Which amino acids are acidic?

Aspartic acid
Glutamic acid

19

Which amino acids are basic?

Lysine
Arginine
Histidine

20

Which amino acid is the most basic?

Arginine

21

Which amino acid is the least basic?

Histidine

22

Which amino acids are polar and uncharged and both have aliphatic amides?

asparagine
glutamine

23

Which amino acids are polar uncharged and have aliphatic hydroxyls?

Serine
Threonine
Tyrosine

24

Which amino acids are polar and uncharged?

Asparagine
Glutamine
Serine
Threonine
Tyrosine

25

The more polar the side chain is, the higher the solubility in water is, why?

Charges on water molecules bind to charge on the amino acid side chain

26

Aliphatic - amino acids?

Ala, Val, Leu, Ile

27

Aromatic - amino acids?

Phe, Tyr, Trp

28

Sulfur-containing - amino acids

Met, Cys, (Cys-Cys)

29

Imino acid

Pro

30

How does one get scurvy?

Vitamin C deficiency

31

What is prolyl and lysyl hydroxyl hydroxylases cofactor?

Vitamin C

32

What is the most abundant protein in teeth?

Collagen

33

What is also a component of collagen?

Hydroxylysine

34

What symptoms accompany scurvy?

Spongy gums and hair problems

35

Vitamin-K dependent carboxylase requires which cofactor?

Vitamin-K

36

Glutamate with carboxylase turns into carboxy-glutamte turns into a

Blood clotting factor

37

Serine + NTP -> Phosphoserine + NDP

Cellular signaling via hormones can induce the phosphorylation of serine residues on target enzymes, leading to their activation. Similarly, phosphorylase catalyzes phosphate-induced gylcogen degradation

38

Phosphothreonine + phosphotyrosine =

signal functions

39

Hydroxylation of proline and lysine need what cofactor?

Vitamin C

40

Carboxylation of glutamic acid needs what?

Vitamin K

41

What are structure breaking amino acids?

Glycine - is without side chain, which causes high thermal motion in the neighborhood of glycine

Proline: is rigidly in a conformation inconsistent with some protein structures

42

2,3-bisphosphoglyverate (BPG) does what?

reduces affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen

43

What charge is BPG?

Negatively charged

44

Multiple charged interaction between ________________ and two of four hemoglobin subunits reduce the affinity for oxygen

2,3-bisphosphoglycerate

45

What will happen if you increase the concentration of 2,3 - bisphosphoglycerate in the red blood cell?

You will promote O2 release or unloading to the target tissues typically at low O2 partial pressures

46

By how much will 2,3 bisphosphoglycerate increase at an elevationof 15,000 ft?

20%

47

What is the only amino acid found in proteins that does not exist as D-L- isomer?

Glycine

48

The disease scurvy is caused by a dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Why is loss of teeth a symptom of this disease?

Collagen holds teeth in place, that is why