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Flashcards in Magda De La Torre 1 Deck (84):
1

Health

Physical, social, and mental well-being, not merely the absence of disease

2

Public Health

The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health through organized efforts and informed choices of society organizations, public and private communities and individuals

3

What are the 3 core functions of public health?

Assessment
Policy Development
Assurance

4

What is assessment?

Regular collection and dissemination of data on health status, community health needs, and epidemiologic issues

5

What is policy development?

Promotion of the use of the base of scientific knowledge in decision making policy matters affecting public health

6

What is assurance?

Provision of services necessary to achieve mutually agreed upon goals, either directly, through other entities or regulation

7

What is "Dental Public Health"?

A specialty of dentistry that focuses on the art and science of preventing and controlling dental disease and promoting dental health through organized community efforts

8

What are the criteria for a public health problem?

1.) Condition or situation that is a widespread actual or potential cause of morbidity or mortality

2.) Perception on the part of the public, government, or public health authorities that the condition is a public health problem

9

What is public perception?

Influential in the allocation of resources to solve a problem

10

What is governmental perception?

Insurance immediate action and can impact program planning and operation

11

What is surveillance?

Ongoing, systematic collection, analysis interpretation of data utilized for planning, implementation or evaluation of a public health practice

12

What are the 9 purposes of surveillance?

1. Guide immediate action of public health importance
2. Measure the burden of disease, populations at risk, or emerging health concerns
3. Monitor trends in disease burden
4. Guide planning, implementation and evaluation of programs
5. Develop public policy
6. Detect changes in health practice and evaluate the effects of these changes
7. Prioritize the allocation of health resources
8. Describe a clinical course of disease
9. Provide a basis for epidemiological research

13

What do these acronyms stand for?

1. CDC
2. NOHSS
3. BRFSS
4. YRBS
5. PRAMS
6. WFRS
7. NHANES
8. BSS

1. Center for Disease Control and Prevention
2. National Oral Health Surveillance System
3. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
4. Youth Risk Behavior Survey
5. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System
6. Water Fluoridation Reporting System
7. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
8. Basic Screening Survey: Direct Examination

14

What are factors that influence population trends?

Age
Geographic Distribution

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The population in the US is getting _____.

older

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1. _________ in life expectancy 2. ______ in birth rate.

1. Increase
2. Decrease

17

Population is moving from the 1_____/______ to the 2. _____/_____

1. North/Northeast
2. South/Southwest

18

Migration from " 1._____ to 2. ____"

Rustbelt to Sunbelt

19

The majority of the US population is between which ages?

18-44

20

According to 2010 what is the total US population?

308.7 million

21

___________ is increasing in the US population.

Diversity

22

_________ : Are the largest minority group in US

Hispanics

23

2/3 of US Hispanic population is of _______-American descent.

Mexican

24

Largest proportion of Hispanics live in __________ US.

Southwest

25

_____% of people living in Texas are minorities and most of those are Hispanic.

50.2%

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____-______ _______: Population in the US has doubled over the past 10 years and the increase is expected to continue

Asian-Pacific Islanders

27

____% of Americans* (approximately 45.3 million Americans) live in poverty (up from 11.3% in 2000)

14.5%

28

Poverty is more common among 1. ______ groups and among 2. _______.

1. minority
2. children

29

Of the children living in poverty, 1.___ % are African-Americans and 2. ___ are Hispanic children.

1. 39%
2. 33%

30

The percentage of children living in poverty is now ___% (previously 20.7% in 2011)

21.8%

31

Complex grouping factors involving the measure of social and economic variables is referred to as __________ _________ __ ________.

Social Determinants of Health

32

How is (SES) measured?

Measured via poverty status and educational level

33

What are a few variables of SES?

Education
Income
Wealth
Social Class

34

SES may be confounded (confused) with what?

Race
Ethnicity
Gender effects

35

What is FPL (Federal Poverty Level) considered to be an income of?

at/below 22,000 for a family of four persons

36

The higher the SES, the greater use of _______ services

dental

37

Patients of lower SES are:

1. Less _____ to have ______ insurance
2. Less able to _______ dental care
3. Have ______ dentist in their local area
4. _______ barriers to receiving dental care

1. likely; dental
2. afford
3. fewer
4. Greater

38

The percentage of population with the greatest dental visits the past year seems to be the highest in which population?

Children, especially in 2015

39

What percent and population who need but did not obtain select health care services during the previous 12 months due to cost was the highest

9.5%; dental

40

How many Americans are living in areas with a dentist shortage?

47.5 million

41

___% of Americans have dental insurance while over 80% of the US population has some sort of US coverage.

46%

42

The US population is becoming more 1. ______ and 2. _______

1. Diverse
2. Multicultural

43

_______ is a major resource for social, economic & personal development & an important dimension of quality of life

Health

44

1. _______, economic, 2. _______, environmental, 3 ________ & biological factors can all favor health or be harmful to health

1. Political
2. Social
3. Behaviorial

45

What are the prerequisites for health fundanmental conditions & resources for health? (9)

Peace
Shelter
Education
Food
Income
A Stable Ecosystem
Sustainable Resources
Social Justice
Equity

46

What are determinants of health?

Factors that interact to create circumstances and produce specific health conditions

47

What are the two categories of determinants of health?

Inherited Determinants
Acquired Determinants

48

What are inherited determinants?

factors that are inborn or genetically determined

49

What are acquired determinants?

factors that influence health and are obtained after birth and throughout life (e.g. infections, trauma, cultural characteristics & spiritual value)

50

What are expanded vision of factors that affect health through life span?

General socioeconomic, cultural & environmental conditions

Living & working conditions

Social & community influences

Individual lifestyle factors

Age, gender, and genetic factors

51

What is healthy people 2020?

A resource for promoting health and preventing disease throuighout the nation

52

What is quality of life?

individuals perceptions of their position in life i nthe context of culture and value system where they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standard and concerns

53

Quality of life refers to: ________

Subjective evaluations, which induces both positive and negative dimensions and is embedded in a cultural, social and environmental context

54

Domains of health and quality of life are _________ and _________.

Complementary and overlapping

55

What are the 6 broad domains of quality of life?

Physical domain
Psychological domain
Level of independence
Social relationships
Environment
Personal beliefs

56

Assessment methods and measures developed to evaluate health related quality of life among population groups:

Global Assessments
Healthy Days
Years of Healthy Life

57

What are some individual behaviors affecting oral, dental & craniofacial health? (7)

Diet and nutrition
Home care practices
Seeking dental care
Tobacco Use
Alcohol Use
Craniofacial Injury Control Practices
Habitual Grinding and Clenching

58

What are two factors that influence Oral, Dental, & Craniofacial Health?

Access to Quality Health Care & Oral Health Care

Policies and Intervention

59

What are the 5 A's ? (Access to Oral Services?)

Availibility
Accessibility
Accomodation
Affordibility
Acceptability

60

OHRQoL is related to HRQoL

True

61

OHRQoL

Multidimensional contruct that reflects people's comfort when eating, sleeping. and engaging in social interaction; their self esteem; and their satisfaction with respect to their oral health

62

What are four dimensions that oral health affects a person's quality of life?

- Functional dimensions
- Sensations of pain and discomfort
- Psychological factors
- Social well-being

63

OHIP

Oral Health Impact Profile

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OHIP Domains (7)

Functional Limitations
Physical pain
Psychologic Discomfort
Physical Disability
Psychologic Disability
Social Disability
Handicap

65

What are the responses for the 5 point lickert scale?

Very often
Fairly often
Occasionally
Hardly Never
Never

66

What is a community?

A group of individuals organized into a unit, or manifesting some unifying trait or common interest

67

What is a unit?

can be entire population of a town, geographic, region, a state, or a nation

68

True or False

Unit may also be a selected subgroup of people for example:

Low income children living in a large city

or

Men urged to have oral cancer screenings

True

69

Community Oral Health Programs target who?

vulnerable populations with limited access to services or resources to pay

70

What are the 4 steps for prevention programs? (APIE)

Assess factors
Plan policy or program
Implement policy or program
Evaluate policy or program

71

What are the different characteristics of communities?

- Physical makeup and geography
- Demographics and population trends
-Social & power structure
-Government & legal structure
- Mental & emotional patterns
- Racial, cultural, ethnic groups
- Social mores
- Religious & nutritional patterns
- Educational institutions & community organizations

72

What are predisposing factors?

individuals knowledge, attitudes, behavior, beliefs & values that affect willingness to change

73

What are enabling factors?

factors environment or community that facilitate or present obstacles to change

74

Reinforcing factors

positive or negative effects of adopting the behavior (including social support) that influence continuing the behavior

75

Social Marketing Approach to Increase Oral Cancer Examinations Among African-Americans was done by University of Florida's college of dentistry, what were their 3 objectives?

1. Explore factors underlying African Americans' perception of oral cancer & oral cancer examination

2. Develop culturally appropriate health messages based on findings

3. Conduct social marketing campaign to decrease racial disparities in oral cancer

76

What is social marketing?

Application of commercial marketing technologies to influence voluntary behavior to improve societal welfare

77

What are the four P's?

Product: health practive
Price: barriers & cost of products
Place: channels of communication
Promotion: message

78

What is the "bottoms up process?"

determination of marketing mix begins with asking target audience for their thoughts about the product, price, place & promotion efforts necessary to sell a beneficial health behavior to the target audience.

79

Three focus groups conducted with ________ _________ men in Jacksonville, FL.

African American

80

What was the provided guiding framework for the three African American men focus groups in Jacksonville, FL?

Health Belief Model & SOcial Marketing Principles

81

What was investigated by the three AA focus groups in Jacksonville Florida? (4)

- Perceived susceptibility to & perceived severity of an oral cancer diagnosis

- Perceived benefits & barriers related to the oral cancer examination

- Knowledge of oral cancer & prevention

- Health promotion variables: information sources & need for incentives

82

What are some assessing factors in a community? (11)

- Family, economic & social conditions
- Socioeconomic status
- Family stress
- Parenting style
- Cultural factors
- Dietary factors
- Feeding and comforting practices
- Caries status
- Risk factors
- Access to dental and health care
- Knowledge and attitudes

83

The CDC Coordinated School Health Model has __ interactive components.

8; Oral health should be incorporated into each component

84

ASTDD

Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD)