Flashcards in Magda De La Torre 1 Deck (84):
Physical, social, and mental well-being, not merely the absence of disease
The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health through organized efforts and informed choices of society organizations, public and private communities and individuals
What are the 3 core functions of public health?
What is assessment?
Regular collection and dissemination of data on health status, community health needs, and epidemiologic issues
What is policy development?
Promotion of the use of the base of scientific knowledge in decision making policy matters affecting public health
What is assurance?
Provision of services necessary to achieve mutually agreed upon goals, either directly, through other entities or regulation
What is "Dental Public Health"?
A specialty of dentistry that focuses on the art and science of preventing and controlling dental disease and promoting dental health through organized community efforts
What are the criteria for a public health problem?
1.) Condition or situation that is a widespread actual or potential cause of morbidity or mortality
2.) Perception on the part of the public, government, or public health authorities that the condition is a public health problem
What is public perception?
Influential in the allocation of resources to solve a problem
What is governmental perception?
Insurance immediate action and can impact program planning and operation
What is surveillance?
Ongoing, systematic collection, analysis interpretation of data utilized for planning, implementation or evaluation of a public health practice
What are the 9 purposes of surveillance?
1. Guide immediate action of public health importance
2. Measure the burden of disease, populations at risk, or emerging health concerns
3. Monitor trends in disease burden
4. Guide planning, implementation and evaluation of programs
5. Develop public policy
6. Detect changes in health practice and evaluate the effects of these changes
7. Prioritize the allocation of health resources
8. Describe a clinical course of disease
9. Provide a basis for epidemiological research
What do these acronyms stand for?
1. Center for Disease Control and Prevention
2. National Oral Health Surveillance System
3. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
4. Youth Risk Behavior Survey
5. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System
6. Water Fluoridation Reporting System
7. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
8. Basic Screening Survey: Direct Examination
What are factors that influence population trends?
The population in the US is getting _____.
1. _________ in life expectancy 2. ______ in birth rate.
Population is moving from the 1_____/______ to the 2. _____/_____
Migration from " 1._____ to 2. ____"
Rustbelt to Sunbelt
The majority of the US population is between which ages?
According to 2010 what is the total US population?
___________ is increasing in the US population.
_________ : Are the largest minority group in US
2/3 of US Hispanic population is of _______-American descent.
Largest proportion of Hispanics live in __________ US.
_____% of people living in Texas are minorities and most of those are Hispanic.
____-______ _______: Population in the US has doubled over the past 10 years and the increase is expected to continue
____% of Americans* (approximately 45.3 million Americans) live in poverty (up from 11.3% in 2000)
Poverty is more common among 1. ______ groups and among 2. _______.
Of the children living in poverty, 1.___ % are African-Americans and 2. ___ are Hispanic children.
The percentage of children living in poverty is now ___% (previously 20.7% in 2011)
Complex grouping factors involving the measure of social and economic variables is referred to as __________ _________ __ ________.
Social Determinants of Health
How is (SES) measured?
Measured via poverty status and educational level
What are a few variables of SES?
SES may be confounded (confused) with what?
What is FPL (Federal Poverty Level) considered to be an income of?
at/below 22,000 for a family of four persons
The higher the SES, the greater use of _______ services
Patients of lower SES are:
1. Less _____ to have ______ insurance
2. Less able to _______ dental care
3. Have ______ dentist in their local area
4. _______ barriers to receiving dental care
1. likely; dental
The percentage of population with the greatest dental visits the past year seems to be the highest in which population?
Children, especially in 2015
What percent and population who need but did not obtain select health care services during the previous 12 months due to cost was the highest
How many Americans are living in areas with a dentist shortage?
___% of Americans have dental insurance while over 80% of the US population has some sort of US coverage.
The US population is becoming more 1. ______ and 2. _______
_______ is a major resource for social, economic & personal development & an important dimension of quality of life
1. _______, economic, 2. _______, environmental, 3 ________ & biological factors can all favor health or be harmful to health
What are the prerequisites for health fundanmental conditions & resources for health? (9)
A Stable Ecosystem
What are determinants of health?
Factors that interact to create circumstances and produce specific health conditions
What are the two categories of determinants of health?
What are inherited determinants?
factors that are inborn or genetically determined
What are acquired determinants?
factors that influence health and are obtained after birth and throughout life (e.g. infections, trauma, cultural characteristics & spiritual value)
What are expanded vision of factors that affect health through life span?
General socioeconomic, cultural & environmental conditions
Living & working conditions
Social & community influences
Individual lifestyle factors
Age, gender, and genetic factors
What is healthy people 2020?
A resource for promoting health and preventing disease throuighout the nation
What is quality of life?
individuals perceptions of their position in life i nthe context of culture and value system where they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standard and concerns
Quality of life refers to: ________
Subjective evaluations, which induces both positive and negative dimensions and is embedded in a cultural, social and environmental context
Domains of health and quality of life are _________ and _________.
Complementary and overlapping
What are the 6 broad domains of quality of life?
Level of independence
Assessment methods and measures developed to evaluate health related quality of life among population groups:
Years of Healthy Life
What are some individual behaviors affecting oral, dental & craniofacial health? (7)
Diet and nutrition
Home care practices
Seeking dental care
Craniofacial Injury Control Practices
Habitual Grinding and Clenching
What are two factors that influence Oral, Dental, & Craniofacial Health?
Access to Quality Health Care & Oral Health Care
Policies and Intervention
What are the 5 A's ? (Access to Oral Services?)
OHRQoL is related to HRQoL
Multidimensional contruct that reflects people's comfort when eating, sleeping. and engaging in social interaction; their self esteem; and their satisfaction with respect to their oral health
What are four dimensions that oral health affects a person's quality of life?
- Functional dimensions
- Sensations of pain and discomfort
- Psychological factors
- Social well-being
Oral Health Impact Profile
OHIP Domains (7)
What are the responses for the 5 point lickert scale?
What is a community?
A group of individuals organized into a unit, or manifesting some unifying trait or common interest
What is a unit?
can be entire population of a town, geographic, region, a state, or a nation
True or False
Unit may also be a selected subgroup of people for example:
Low income children living in a large city
Men urged to have oral cancer screenings
Community Oral Health Programs target who?
vulnerable populations with limited access to services or resources to pay
What are the 4 steps for prevention programs? (APIE)
Plan policy or program
Implement policy or program
Evaluate policy or program
What are the different characteristics of communities?
- Physical makeup and geography
- Demographics and population trends
-Social & power structure
-Government & legal structure
- Mental & emotional patterns
- Racial, cultural, ethnic groups
- Social mores
- Religious & nutritional patterns
- Educational institutions & community organizations
What are predisposing factors?
individuals knowledge, attitudes, behavior, beliefs & values that affect willingness to change
What are enabling factors?
factors environment or community that facilitate or present obstacles to change
positive or negative effects of adopting the behavior (including social support) that influence continuing the behavior
Social Marketing Approach to Increase Oral Cancer Examinations Among African-Americans was done by University of Florida's college of dentistry, what were their 3 objectives?
1. Explore factors underlying African Americans' perception of oral cancer & oral cancer examination
2. Develop culturally appropriate health messages based on findings
3. Conduct social marketing campaign to decrease racial disparities in oral cancer
What is social marketing?
Application of commercial marketing technologies to influence voluntary behavior to improve societal welfare
What are the four P's?
Product: health practive
Price: barriers & cost of products
Place: channels of communication
What is the "bottoms up process?"
determination of marketing mix begins with asking target audience for their thoughts about the product, price, place & promotion efforts necessary to sell a beneficial health behavior to the target audience.
Three focus groups conducted with ________ _________ men in Jacksonville, FL.
What was the provided guiding framework for the three African American men focus groups in Jacksonville, FL?
Health Belief Model & SOcial Marketing Principles
What was investigated by the three AA focus groups in Jacksonville Florida? (4)
- Perceived susceptibility to & perceived severity of an oral cancer diagnosis
- Perceived benefits & barriers related to the oral cancer examination
- Knowledge of oral cancer & prevention
- Health promotion variables: information sources & need for incentives
What are some assessing factors in a community? (11)
- Family, economic & social conditions
- Socioeconomic status
- Family stress
- Parenting style
- Cultural factors
- Dietary factors
- Feeding and comforting practices
- Caries status
- Risk factors
- Access to dental and health care
- Knowledge and attitudes
The CDC Coordinated School Health Model has __ interactive components.
8; Oral health should be incorporated into each component