Gross 1 Flashcards Preview

DHHD 1 > Gross 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gross 1 Deck (57):
1

What heals faster than the rest of the body?

Oral cavity

2

When is the critical period?

The time during which the environment has the greatest impact on the developing embryo

3

When does the degree of nourishment matter?

During fetal development
Pre-eruption and post
Post-eruption of permanent teeth

4

When does primary tooth development begin?

6 weeks at gestation

5

What are the stages of tooth development?

Initiation stage - 6th - 7th week
Bud stage - 8th week
Cap stage - 9th - 10th week
Bell stage - 11th to 12th week
Apposition stage - varies per tooth
Maturation stage - varies per tooth
Mineralization stage - 12th - 16th week

6

Which trimester do primary teeth begin to mineralize?

Early second trimester

7

When are crowns of primary teeth formed?

At birth

8

When are crowns of permanent teeth formed?

By age 1

9

Saliva

plays a critical role later in life in caries prevention

10

Presence or lack of ________ can make the difference between high functioning salivary glands and deficient size and function of salivary glands

nutrients

11

Presence or lack of _______ can make the difference between healthy periodontal tissues that are resistant to bacterial invasion and those that form periodontal pockets

nutrients

12

What does Ca+, P, Mg, and Vitamin D effect?

Alveolar bone quality

13

What does vitamin C effect?

collagen formation of soft tissue

14

What does malnutrition effect?

delayed tooth eruption

15

What does protein deficiency effect?

Tooth size & eruption sequence

16

What are considered your macro nutrients?

Protein
Carbohydrates
Fats
Water

17

What is considered your micronutrients?

- Vitamins
- A
- B complex
- C
- D
- K
- Calcium and phosphorus
- Iron
- Zinc - trace

18

Deficiency in which macromolecule causes crowded and rotated teeth?

Protein (pre-eruptive only)

19

Deficiency in which macromolecule causes slow tissue healing and causes degeneration of periodontal connective tissue?

Protein (post-eruptive)

20

Where are complete proteins found?

Animal proteins

21

Why are some proteins deemed incomplete?

They have a low quantity of one or more amino acids

22

Is shrimp a healthy protein

No

23

What are the effects of protein/calorie malnutrition? And is there any human data?
And is there a possible effect on caries?

- Delayed tooth eruption
- Decreased tooth size
- Decreased enamel solubility
- Salivary gland dysfunction

-Yes human data
-Yes effect on caries risk

24

Which vitamins are water soluble?

Vitamin C
All of the B vitamin complex?

25

Which vitamins are fat soluble?

Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K

26

How do fat soluble and water soluble vitamins differ?

- Food sources of vitamins
- Vitamin stability during cooking
- Function in the body
- Absorption and distribution in the body
- Body's ability to store the vitamin in tissues for future use

27

What is (RDA)?

Recommended dietary allowance

- amount of a vitamin thought to be needed for good health

28

What does vitamin A do?

Pre-eruptive?
Post-eruptive?

Synthesizes epithelial tissues

Pre-eruptive - Assist in formation of salivary glands, enamel, and dentin
Deficiency may contribute to cleft lip palate (folic acid deficiency leads to cleft lip palate)

Post-eruptive - Maintains epithelial tissues and keeps salivary glands working
Deficiency may cause glands to atrophy and keratinize periodontal tissues

29

What will increase enamel hypoplasia, decrease epithelial tissue development, and cause tooth morphogenesis dysfunction?

Vitamin A deficiency in pre-eruptive teeth by maternal deficiency

30

Why is Vitamin D important?

It enhances absorption of calcium and phosphorus

31

Why is calcium D is important pre-eruptively and post-eruptively?

Pre-eruptively - Aids with calcification of all hard tissues and a deficiency could cause enamel or dental hyperplasia

Post eruptively helps repair diseased bone and supports immune function. Deficiency causes osteomalacia and the loss of lamina dura

32

When/How often should you go outside and get vitamin D?

15 min/3 times between 11 am and 2 pm

33

Why is vitamin C important?

Helps with the formation of collagen

34

Why is vitamin C important Pre-eruptively?

helps with the formation of bone and teeth and formation of all connective tissue. Deficiency causes irregular formation of dentin.

35

Why is vitamin C important Post eruptively?

Helps with formation of collagen, wound healing, and formation of connective tissue. Deficiency causes enlarged, bluish-red tissues (scurvy)

36

Is there human data on vitamin C deficiency? Also is there a possible effect on caries risk?

No & no

37

Major/Macro minerals

Calcium
Chloride
Magnesium
Phosphorus (phosphate)
Potassium
Sodium
Sulfur

38

Trace minerals

As important in body functions just as major minerals just in smaller amounts. More than 30 trace minerals

39

What are the 8 primary roles of minerals in the body?

1. Converting macronutrients to energy
2. Synthesizing/Activating enzymes
3. Forming hormones
4. Forming vitamins from precursor molecules
5. Forming vitamins from precursor molecules
6. Forming blood cells and recycling minerals from broken-down cells
7. Forming connective tissues
8. Function as antioxidants

40

Calcium and Phosphorus

Calcify hard tissues

41

Calcium and Phosphorus (Pre-eruptively & Post-eruptively)?

Pre-eruptively - mineralize enamel, cementum, and bone. Deficiency causes hypo calcification of enamel

Post-eruptively - Remineralize hard tissues and maintain bone. Deficiency causes bone loss.

42

Calcium and Phosphorus is there human data and is there a possible effect on caries risk?

Yes human data and yes caries risk

43

When is the critical growth period for fluoride?

From ages 6 months to 2.5 years when permanent teeth are developing

44

What is fluorides effect pre-eruptively and post eruptively?

pre-eruptive - incorporated into developing tooth to add strength

post-eruptive - continues to protect against dental caries

45

What happens if you have too much fluoride?

What about a deficiency in fluoride?

Too much - causes dental fluorosis

Deficiency - calcified structures are weak, porous, and open for attack by acid destruction

46

Is there human data and is there a possible caries risk with fluoride deficiency?

Yes and yes

47

Why is iron important and what are some deficiencies?

Important, synthesizes hemoglobin

Deficiency causes
- Glossitis
- Dysphagia
- Atriphied lingual papilla
- Gray mucous membranes
- Angular cheilitis
- Salivary gland dysfunction

48

Is there any human data on iron deficiencies? Is there an effect on caries risk?

No
Yes

49

T/F

High blood levels of lead are associated with increased incidence of tooth caries

T

50

T/F

Cotinine, by-product of nicotine, has a indirect relationship with dental caries in children exposed to second hand smoke.

F; it has a direct relationship

51

__________ causes permanent intrinsic tooth staining if ingested during tooth development.

Tetracycline

52

T/F

High levels of naturally occurring fluoride can cause unsightly dental fluorosis

T

53

Diet does not have any correlation or affect growth of mandible, maxilla, and proper tooth eruption in animals

F; it does

54

Pregnancy weight gain should be __ lbs per month

3

55

During pregnancy calories should increase by 1._____kcal daily.

During lactation calories should increase by 2._____kcal daily.

1. 300; 10-15g protein
2. 500; 15+g protein

56

Test question*

Folic acid

Received by:

Green leafy vegetables
Citrus Fruits
Legumes
Fortified cereals

IT PREVENTS CLEFT LIP; US STARTED PUTING FOLIC ACID IN BREAD 50 YRS AGO

57

What should a pre-natal vitamin include?

400 micrograms of folic acid
200 IU of vitmain D
200-300 mg of calcium
70 mg of vitamin C
3 mg of tiamine
2 mg of riboflavin
20 mg of niacin
6 mcg vitamin b12
10 mg of vitamin E
15 mg of zinc
17 mg of iron