Flashcards in Gross 1 Deck (57):
What heals faster than the rest of the body?
When is the critical period?
The time during which the environment has the greatest impact on the developing embryo
When does the degree of nourishment matter?
During fetal development
Pre-eruption and post
Post-eruption of permanent teeth
When does primary tooth development begin?
6 weeks at gestation
What are the stages of tooth development?
Initiation stage - 6th - 7th week
Bud stage - 8th week
Cap stage - 9th - 10th week
Bell stage - 11th to 12th week
Apposition stage - varies per tooth
Maturation stage - varies per tooth
Mineralization stage - 12th - 16th week
Which trimester do primary teeth begin to mineralize?
Early second trimester
When are crowns of primary teeth formed?
When are crowns of permanent teeth formed?
By age 1
plays a critical role later in life in caries prevention
Presence or lack of ________ can make the difference between high functioning salivary glands and deficient size and function of salivary glands
Presence or lack of _______ can make the difference between healthy periodontal tissues that are resistant to bacterial invasion and those that form periodontal pockets
What does Ca+, P, Mg, and Vitamin D effect?
Alveolar bone quality
What does vitamin C effect?
collagen formation of soft tissue
What does malnutrition effect?
delayed tooth eruption
What does protein deficiency effect?
Tooth size & eruption sequence
What are considered your macro nutrients?
What is considered your micronutrients?
- B complex
- Calcium and phosphorus
- Zinc - trace
Deficiency in which macromolecule causes crowded and rotated teeth?
Protein (pre-eruptive only)
Deficiency in which macromolecule causes slow tissue healing and causes degeneration of periodontal connective tissue?
Where are complete proteins found?
Why are some proteins deemed incomplete?
They have a low quantity of one or more amino acids
Is shrimp a healthy protein
What are the effects of protein/calorie malnutrition? And is there any human data?
And is there a possible effect on caries?
- Delayed tooth eruption
- Decreased tooth size
- Decreased enamel solubility
- Salivary gland dysfunction
-Yes human data
-Yes effect on caries risk
Which vitamins are water soluble?
All of the B vitamin complex?
Which vitamins are fat soluble?
How do fat soluble and water soluble vitamins differ?
- Food sources of vitamins
- Vitamin stability during cooking
- Function in the body
- Absorption and distribution in the body
- Body's ability to store the vitamin in tissues for future use
What is (RDA)?
Recommended dietary allowance
- amount of a vitamin thought to be needed for good health
What does vitamin A do?
Synthesizes epithelial tissues
Pre-eruptive - Assist in formation of salivary glands, enamel, and dentin
Deficiency may contribute to cleft lip palate (folic acid deficiency leads to cleft lip palate)
Post-eruptive - Maintains epithelial tissues and keeps salivary glands working
Deficiency may cause glands to atrophy and keratinize periodontal tissues
What will increase enamel hypoplasia, decrease epithelial tissue development, and cause tooth morphogenesis dysfunction?
Vitamin A deficiency in pre-eruptive teeth by maternal deficiency
Why is Vitamin D important?
It enhances absorption of calcium and phosphorus
Why is calcium D is important pre-eruptively and post-eruptively?
Pre-eruptively - Aids with calcification of all hard tissues and a deficiency could cause enamel or dental hyperplasia
Post eruptively helps repair diseased bone and supports immune function. Deficiency causes osteomalacia and the loss of lamina dura
When/How often should you go outside and get vitamin D?
15 min/3 times between 11 am and 2 pm
Why is vitamin C important?
Helps with the formation of collagen
Why is vitamin C important Pre-eruptively?
helps with the formation of bone and teeth and formation of all connective tissue. Deficiency causes irregular formation of dentin.
Why is vitamin C important Post eruptively?
Helps with formation of collagen, wound healing, and formation of connective tissue. Deficiency causes enlarged, bluish-red tissues (scurvy)
Is there human data on vitamin C deficiency? Also is there a possible effect on caries risk?
No & no
As important in body functions just as major minerals just in smaller amounts. More than 30 trace minerals
What are the 8 primary roles of minerals in the body?
1. Converting macronutrients to energy
2. Synthesizing/Activating enzymes
3. Forming hormones
4. Forming vitamins from precursor molecules
5. Forming vitamins from precursor molecules
6. Forming blood cells and recycling minerals from broken-down cells
7. Forming connective tissues
8. Function as antioxidants
Calcium and Phosphorus
Calcify hard tissues
Calcium and Phosphorus (Pre-eruptively & Post-eruptively)?
Pre-eruptively - mineralize enamel, cementum, and bone. Deficiency causes hypo calcification of enamel
Post-eruptively - Remineralize hard tissues and maintain bone. Deficiency causes bone loss.
Calcium and Phosphorus is there human data and is there a possible effect on caries risk?
Yes human data and yes caries risk
When is the critical growth period for fluoride?
From ages 6 months to 2.5 years when permanent teeth are developing
What is fluorides effect pre-eruptively and post eruptively?
pre-eruptive - incorporated into developing tooth to add strength
post-eruptive - continues to protect against dental caries
What happens if you have too much fluoride?
What about a deficiency in fluoride?
Too much - causes dental fluorosis
Deficiency - calcified structures are weak, porous, and open for attack by acid destruction
Is there human data and is there a possible caries risk with fluoride deficiency?
Yes and yes
Why is iron important and what are some deficiencies?
Important, synthesizes hemoglobin
- Atriphied lingual papilla
- Gray mucous membranes
- Angular cheilitis
- Salivary gland dysfunction
Is there any human data on iron deficiencies? Is there an effect on caries risk?
High blood levels of lead are associated with increased incidence of tooth caries
Cotinine, by-product of nicotine, has a indirect relationship with dental caries in children exposed to second hand smoke.
F; it has a direct relationship
__________ causes permanent intrinsic tooth staining if ingested during tooth development.
High levels of naturally occurring fluoride can cause unsightly dental fluorosis
Diet does not have any correlation or affect growth of mandible, maxilla, and proper tooth eruption in animals
F; it does
Pregnancy weight gain should be __ lbs per month
During pregnancy calories should increase by 1._____kcal daily.
During lactation calories should increase by 2._____kcal daily.
1. 300; 10-15g protein
2. 500; 15+g protein
Green leafy vegetables
IT PREVENTS CLEFT LIP; US STARTED PUTING FOLIC ACID IN BREAD 50 YRS AGO