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Flashcards in Amir sam 4 Deck (59)
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1

What should you look for in the hands in a patient presenting with an abdominal complaint. (6)

Asterixis (liver flap).
Bruising.
Clubbing.
Dupuytren's contracture.
Erythema (palmar).
Leuconychia.

2

What should you look at in the forearms of a patient presenting with an abdominal complaint.

AV fistulae (current or previous renal replacement therapy).

3

What should you look for in the head and neck of a patient presenting with an abdominal complaint. (6)

Anaemia.
Jaundice.
Excoriation marks.
Spider naevi.
Oral examination: pigmentation, gum hypertrophy.

4

Right subcostal incision.

Kocher's incision for biliary surgery.

5

Mercedes-Benz incision.

Liver transplant.

6

Midline laparotomy incision.

GI or any major abdominal surgery.

7

McBurney's incision.

Appendicectomy.

8

J-shaped/ hockey stick incision.

Renal transplant.

9

Low transverse incision.

Gynaecological procedures.

10

Inguinal incision. (2)

Hernia repair.
Vascular access.

11

Loin incision.

Nephrectomy.

12

What are the causes of hepatomegaly. (5)

Cancer (primary or secondary deposits).
Cirrhosis (early, usually alcoholic).
Congestive cardiac failure.
Constrictive pericarditis.
Infiltration: fatty infiltration, haemochromatosis, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, lymphoproliferative diseases.

13

What are the main causes of liver disease. (5)

Alcohol.
Autoimmune.
Drugs.
Viral.
Biliary disease.

14

What are the causes of splenomegaly. (4)

Portal hypertension.
Haematological.
Infection.
Inflammation.

15

What are some causes of epigastric pain. (9)

Peptic ulcer disease.
GORD.
Gastritis.
Malignancy.
Acute pancreatitis.
MI.
Ruptured AAA.
Cholecystitis.
Hepatitis.

16

What are the main features of acute pancreatitis. (2)

Pain.
High amylase.

17

What are the main features of chronic pancreatitis. (5)

Pain.
Weight loss.
Loss of exocrine and endocrine function of the pancreas.
Normal amylase.
Faecal elastase.

18

What are some causes for RUQ pain. (10)

Cholecystitis.
Cholangitis.
Gallstones.
Hepatitis.
Liver abscess.
Basal pneumonia.
Appendicitis.
Peptic ulcer disease.
Pancreatitis.
Pyelonephritis.

19

What are some causes for RIF pain. (8)

Appendicitis.
Mesenteric adenitis.
Colitis (IBD).
Malignancy.
Ovarian cyst rupture.
Ovarian torsion.
Ovarian bleed.
Ectopic pregnancy.

20

What are some causes of suprapubic pain. (2)

Cystitis.
Urinary retention.

21

What are some causes of LIF pain. (7)

Diverticulitis.
Colitis (IBD).
Malignancy.
Ovarian cyst rupture.
Ovarian torsion.
Ovarian bleed.

22

What are some causes of generalized abdominal pain. (10)

Obstruction.
Peritonitis.
Gastroenteritis.
IBD.
Mesenteric ischaemia.
DKA.
Addison's disease.
Hypercalcaemia.
Porphyria.
Lead poisoning.

23

What structures does the celiac artery supply. (5)

Stomach.
Spleen.
Liver.
Gallbladder.
Duodenum.

24

What strutures does the SMA supply. (2)

Small intestine.
Right colon.

25

What structures does the IMA supply.

Left colon.

26

What structure does the ileomesenteric arcade supply.

Rectum.

27

What are the causes of abdominal distention. (5)

Fluid.
Flatus.
Fat.
Faeces.
Fetus.

28

What are the clinical features of bowel obstruction. (6)

Nausea and vomiting.
Not opened bowels.
High pitched tinkling bowel sounds.
Previous surgery (adhesions?).
Tender irreducible femoral hernia in the groin?

29

What is the most common cause of bowel obstruction post surgery.

Adhesions.

30

What are the two subsets of ascites. (2)

Trasudate.
Exudate.