Amir sam 5 Flashcards Preview

Amir Sam DPD Lectures > Amir sam 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Amir sam 5 Deck (34)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the common neurological causes of disease. (7)

Vascular.
Infection.
Inflammation/Autoimmune.
Toxic/Metabolic.
Tumour/Malignancy.
Hereditary/Congenital.

2

What are the steps in conducting an upper and lower limb exam. (8)

Inspection.
Tone.
Power.
Reflexes.
Coordination.
Sensation.
Gait.
Back.

3

What are some signs of UMN lesion. (4)

Increased muscle tone (spasticity).
Decreased power.
Increased reflexes.
(increased plantar reflex).

4

What are some sings of LMN lesion. (3)

Decreased tone (flaccid).
Decreased power.
Decreased reflexes.

5

What are some cerebellar signs of disease. (5)

Ataxia.
Nystagmus.
Dysdiadochokinesia.
Intention tremor.
Speech (slurred, scanning).

6

What sort of sensory loss occurs with cerebral cortex lesions.

Hemisensory loss.

7

What sort of sensory loss occurs with spinal cord lesions.

Level (eg umbilicus).

8

What sort of sensory loss occurs with nerve root lesions (radiculopathy).

Dermatomal.

9

What sort of sensory loss occurs with mononeuropathy.

Specific areas.

10

What sort of sensory loss occurs with polyneuropathy.

Glove and stocking distribution.

11

What are some toxic/metabolic causes of peripheral neuropathy. (7)

Drugs.
Alcohol.
B12 deficiency.
Diabetes.
Hypothyroidism.
Uraemia.
Amyloidosis.

12

What are some rarer causes of peripheral neuropathy. (7)

HIV.
Vasculitis.
CTD.
Inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy.
Paraneoplastic syndrome.
Paraproteinaemia.
Hereditary sensory motor neuropathy.

13

What are the clinical signs of optic neuritis. (3)

Blurred optic disc margins.
Blurred vision.
Pain on eye movement.

14

What are the characteristics of multiple sclerosis. (2)

Two lesions, separated in time and space.

15

What is meralgia paraesthetica.

Compression of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve.

16

What is the treatment of meralgia paraesthetica. (4)

Reassure.
Avoid tight garments.
Lose weight.
If persistent: carbamezepine, gabapentin.

17

What three nerves provide the sensory innervation of the hand. (3)

Median.
Ulnar.
Radial.

18

What is radiculopathy.

A disease of the nerve roots.

19

What is lumosacrap radiculopathy. (2)

Pain in the buttock.
Radiates down the leg below the knee (sciatica).

20

What is lumosacral radiculopathy caused by. (2)

Compression of the nerve root by:
Disc herniation.
Spinal canal stenosis.

21

What are the features of parkinson's disease. (3)

Tremor.
Rigidity.
Bradykinesia.

22

What are the features of Steele-Richardson syndrome. (2)

Parkinsonian features.
Upgaze abnormality.

23

What are the features of lewy body dementia. (3)

Features of Alzheimer's disease.
Features of Parkinson's disease.
Hallucinations.

24

What are some causes of confusion. (4)

Post-ictal.
Dysphasia (receptive or expressive).
Dementia (vascular, alcoholic, AD, HD).
Depressive pesudodementia.

25

What are some causes of confusion/reduced consciousness. (6)

Hypoglycaemia.
Vascular (bleed, subdural haematoma).
Infection.
Inflammation.
Malignancy.
Metabolic.toxic (drugs, vitamin deficiencies, endocripathies).

26

What three aspects does the GCS assess. (3)

Eyes.
Verbal response.
Motor response.

27

What are the causes of headache (emergency department). (4)

Meningitis.
Subarachnoid haemorrhage.
Giant cell arteritis.
Migraine.

28

What are the features of meningitis. (3)

Fever.
Neck stiffness.
Kernig's sign.

29

What are the features of subarachnoid haemorrhages.

Sudden onset headache.
History of fall.

30

What are the typical features of migraine. (5)

Throbbing.
Vomiting.
Photophobia.
FH.
Aura.