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Flashcards in Amir sam 6 Deck (34)
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1

What are the features of immediate transfusion reactions. (6)

Fever.
Rigor.
High PR.
Low BP.
Chest pain.
Dark Urine.

2

What do these features indicate:Fever.
Rigor.
High PR.
Low BP.
Chest pain.
Dark Urine.

Immediate transfusion reaction (haemolysis).

3

What are some causes of a low MCV. (3)

Iron deficiency anaemia.
Beta thalassaemia.
Anaemic of chronic disease (eg RA).

4

What are some causes of macrocytic anaemia. (5)

Alcohol.
Myelodysplasia.
Hypothyroidism.
Liver disease.
Folate/B12 deficiency.

5

What are the features of alcohol induced macrocytic anaemia. (2)

History of alcohol abuse.
Raised GGT.

6

What are the presentations of polycythaemia. (7)

Headache.
Pruritus after hot bath.
Blurred vision (hyperviscosity).
Tinnutus.
Thrombosis (stroke, DVT).
Gangrene.
Choreiform movements.

7

How do you manage an acute painful crisis in sickle cell disease. (4)

Analgesia.
Oxygen.
IV fluids.
Antibiotics.

8

What are the symptoms of sequestration crisis of the lungs. (3)

Shortness of breath.
Cough.
Fever.

9

What is the management for stroke in the context of sickle cell disease.

Exchange blood transfusion.

10

What is the management of sequestration crisis of the spleen in sickle cell disease.

Splenectomy for repeated episodes of splenic sequestration.

11

What is the consequence of a sequestration crisis of the spleen in sick cell disease.

Exacerbation of anaemia.

12

What is the treatment for gallstones and chronic cholecystitis in sickle cell disease.

Cholecystectomy.

13

What are the features of multiple myeloma. (6)

Calcium (raised).
Renal failure.
Anaemia (breathlessness, lethargy).
Bone (pain, osteoporosis, fractures).
Infection.
Cord compression.

14

What is the diagnosis:
Anaemia with raised reticulocyte count.

Haemolytic crisis.
(or haemorrhage!)

15

What is the diagnosis: anaemia with low reticulocyte count. (3)

Parvovirus B19 infection.
Aplastic crisis in patients with sickle cell anaemia.
Blood transfusion.

16

What are the characteristics of T1DM. (6)

Young, thin, insulin deficiency.
Weight loss.
Ketones.
Acidosis.

17

What are the characteristics of T2DM. (3)

Older.
Overweight or obese.
Insulin resistant.

18

What is the typical presentation of a patient with Graves' disease. (9)

Weight loss.
Increased appetite.
Irritability.
Palpitations.
Irregular periods.
Tremor.
Proptosis.
Smooth goitre.
Pretibial myxoedema.

19

What are the risk factors for thyroid cancer. (4)

Radiation exposure.
FH.
Rapid thyroid enlargement/compression.
Lymphadenopathy.

20

What is the characteristic of thyroid cancer on an uptake scan.

Cold nodules.

21

What are the symptoms of a prolactinoma. (4)

Amenorrhoea.
Galactorrhoea.
Bitemporal hemianopia.
(Sexual dysfunction).

22

What are the discriminatory signs of Cushing's disease. (4)

Bruising.
Myopathy.
Purple striae >1cm wide.
DM, HTN and osteoporosis at a young age.

23

What is the differential diagnosis for amenorrhoea/oligomenorrhea. (6)

Pregnancy.
Hypothalamic.
Pituitary.
Thyroid (hyper/hypo).
PCOS.
Ovarian failure.

24

What is the typical presentation of hypokalaemia. (3)

Weakness.
Arrhythmia
Polyuria.

25

What is the differential diagnosis for hypokalaemia. (3)

Vomiting.
Diuretics.
Primary hyperaldosteronism (bilateral hyperplasia, Conn's).

26

How is osmolality calculated.

2 x (sodium + potassium) + urea + glucose.

27

What are some causes for high plasma osmolality. (3)

Dehydration.
HHS.
T2DM.

28

What is a cause of low plasma osmolality.

DI.

29

What are the causes of AKI. (3)

Pre-renal.
Renal.
Post renal.

30

What are some pre-renal causes of AKI. (2)

Hypovolaemia.
Sepsis.