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COGS17 - Final > Amygdala > Flashcards

Flashcards in Amygdala Deck (12):


Stimulation of particular regions (most of which interact with each other) leads to typical reactions


Corticomedial Area =


=> Primed to Attack, prolonged inclination toward aggression

- e.g. Rabies, from a virus that attacks, especially, temporal region of brain => extreme aggression


Lateral Nuclei =

> Startle Reflex Sudden loud noise => Freeze, Tense neck to protect spine, Inc heart rate


Startle Reflex is influenced by Amygdala connections…

=> from Pain fibers, and Visual and Auditory input, to detect and learn negative associations

=> to Central Gray Area of Midbrain = Part of Tegmentum for motor control, esp of neck muscles

=> to Hypothalamus => Influences Autonomic NS response (e.g. inc blood pressure, heartrate, etc)
- Recall that 2 of the Hypothalamic “4 Fs” = Fighting & Fleeing


Central & Basolateral Nuclei

=> Conditioned fear, via integration of sensory info (e.g. vision + pain)

- Unlearned Startle Reflex


Unlearned Startle Reflex (e.g. loud noise > !!)

can be further conditioned (modified via learning)

- If visual stim (e.g. light) is paired w/noxious stimulus (e.g. shock) light alone comes to elicit fear
- Once association is learned, paired signal enhances reflex (i.e. jump higher to noise if light on)


Startle Reflex

enhanced by any unpleasant stimulus (e.g. disturbing photo, sound or odor) presented simultaneously, whether or not previously paired with unconditioned (noxious) stimulus


a paired signal previously associated w/pleasant stimulus will decrease...

...Startle Reflex

- e.g. Light paired w/soothing warmth >> Not jump as high to noise if light is on


All of above aid memory of emotionally-laden stimuli, via connections to/from Hippocampus

- i.e. Emotion-provoking (esp aversive) images or words, if not too intense, remembered better than neutral


shared emotion

Amygdala active not just when feel/express but also when observe emotion in others
- e.g. In many primates, infants learn what to fear by watching/imitating mother’s reaction


Urbach-Wieth Disease =

= degenerative calcification in Amygdala, (or other damage) can lead to…

- Impaired ability to recognize Facial Expression, especially fear and untrustworthiness

- Patients recognize individuals, gender, but trouble naming emotion, judging if face is “approachable”
- May be related to disinterest in eyes; forced to consider eyes only, judgments are a bit better

- Patients generally placid, do not experience strong likes/dislikes, act less timid in strange environment


Overall, Amygdala seems particularly involved in

mediating critical social (e.g. aggression, mating) interactions
and learning/responding to these and other potentially threatening or exciting stimuli