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COGS17 - Final > Amygdala > Flashcards

Flashcards in Amygdala Deck (12):
1

Amygdala

Stimulation of particular regions (most of which interact with each other) leads to typical reactions

2

Corticomedial Area =

e.g.?

=> Primed to Attack, prolonged inclination toward aggression

- e.g. Rabies, from a virus that attacks, especially, temporal region of brain => extreme aggression

3

Lateral Nuclei =

> Startle Reflex Sudden loud noise => Freeze, Tense neck to protect spine, Inc heart rate

4

Startle Reflex is influenced by Amygdala connections…

=> from Pain fibers, and Visual and Auditory input, to detect and learn negative associations

=> to Central Gray Area of Midbrain = Part of Tegmentum for motor control, esp of neck muscles

=> to Hypothalamus => Influences Autonomic NS response (e.g. inc blood pressure, heartrate, etc)
- Recall that 2 of the Hypothalamic “4 Fs” = Fighting & Fleeing

5

Central & Basolateral Nuclei

=> Conditioned fear, via integration of sensory info (e.g. vision + pain)

- Unlearned Startle Reflex

6

Unlearned Startle Reflex (e.g. loud noise > !!)

can be further conditioned (modified via learning)

- If visual stim (e.g. light) is paired w/noxious stimulus (e.g. shock) light alone comes to elicit fear
- Once association is learned, paired signal enhances reflex (i.e. jump higher to noise if light on)

7

Startle Reflex

enhanced by any unpleasant stimulus (e.g. disturbing photo, sound or odor) presented simultaneously, whether or not previously paired with unconditioned (noxious) stimulus

8

a paired signal previously associated w/pleasant stimulus will decrease...

...Startle Reflex

- e.g. Light paired w/soothing warmth >> Not jump as high to noise if light is on

9

All of above aid memory of emotionally-laden stimuli, via connections to/from Hippocampus

- i.e. Emotion-provoking (esp aversive) images or words, if not too intense, remembered better than neutral

10

shared emotion

Amygdala active not just when feel/express but also when observe emotion in others
- e.g. In many primates, infants learn what to fear by watching/imitating mother’s reaction

11

Urbach-Wieth Disease =

= degenerative calcification in Amygdala, (or other damage) can lead to…

- Impaired ability to recognize Facial Expression, especially fear and untrustworthiness

- Patients recognize individuals, gender, but trouble naming emotion, judging if face is “approachable”
- May be related to disinterest in eyes; forced to consider eyes only, judgments are a bit better

- Patients generally placid, do not experience strong likes/dislikes, act less timid in strange environment

12

Overall, Amygdala seems particularly involved in

mediating critical social (e.g. aggression, mating) interactions
and learning/responding to these and other potentially threatening or exciting stimuli