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COGS17 - Final > Declarative Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Declarative Memory Deck (10):
1

Declarative Memory

- For cued facts or past personal episodes, perceptual input first processed by cortical sensory areas, then to “Medial Temporal Lobe” (Hippocampus & associated structures), then to Mediodorsal Thalamus, then to Prefrontal Cortex (“Working Memory”) interconnected to other higher cortical areas

2

Hippocampus

not just involved in spatial memory, but also in consolidating & retrieving declarative memories
e.g. Match-To-Sample task

3

Match-To-Sample Task

Shown Sample stimulus, subject picks which of 2 Alternatives matches Sample
- Train rat on MTS until proficient; After rat learns task, lesion its Hippocampus
- Test w/novel stimuli, must apply “rule” (i.e. Pick alt that matches sample); Performance impaired

4

Mediodorsal Thalamus

(like Hippo.) damage more likely to impact declarative than procedural memory

5

Korsakoff's Syndrome

Connections from Thalamus to Prefrontal Cortex appear damaged

Chronic alcoholism >> vitamin B1 (Thiamine) deficiency, required for cells to metabolize glucose

- Anterograde amnesia (cannot form new memories) & Confabulation (make up stories based on current cues)

6

H.M.

shows?

Famous epilepsy patient had Hippocampus, Amygdala & some Temporal Cortex removed
- Personality & IQ fairly intact, but suffered severe Anterograde Amnesia (+ some Retro for time near trauma)
- Couldn’t remember people he’d just met, page he’d just read; parents moved, couldn’t find his way home
- Could be taught a simple associative task (e.g. word + photo), so Working Memory still OK
- But could not recall it 15 min later - So Hippocampus may act to consolidate some types of memories
- W/repetitive training, learned new skills (e.g. “Tower of Hanoi” puzzle) but not recall having learned them
- So H.M. shows Long-Term Procedural (Skill) Memory but not Declarative (Fact) Memory

7

Amygdala

also plays critical role in Consolidation of temporary associations into Long-Term Memories

- Emotion facilitates memory formation

8

Block NMDA receptors in Basolateral Amygdala,

prevent learning; But after learning, blocker has no effect !

9

Emotion facilitates memory formation

(Although extremes of emotion or stress can impair learning/memory)

- e.g. Arbitrary list of words easy to forget, except few “taboo” words that evoked emotional response

10

memory for words

stored in inferior temporal