venous gonadal drainage
left ovary/testis --> left gonadal vein --> left renal vein --> IVC
right ovary/testis --> right gonadal vein --> IVC
**LEFT TAKES THE LONG WAY**
why is a varicocele more likely on the left side?
left spermatic veine nters the left renal vein at a 90 degree angle so flow is less contonious then the right side --> left venous pressure is higher than the right --> left more likely to varicocele
gonadal lymphatic drainage
ovaries/testes --> para-aortic lymph nodes
distal vagina/vulva/scrotum --> superficial inguinal nodes
proximal vagina/uterus --> obturator, external iliac and hypogastric lymph nodes
suspensory ligament of the ovaries
connects ovaries to lateral pelvic wall; contains ovarian vessels
during an oophorectomy, ligate which vessels to avoid bleeding?
what is at risk during an oophorectomy?
ureter courses retroperitoneally, close to gonadal vessels!! at risk of ligation!
connects the cervix to the side wall of pelvis
contains uterine vessels
during hysterectomy, what do you ligate to avoid bleeding? what is at risk?
ligate the uterine vessels
and the ureter is at risk!
round ligament of the uterus
connects the uterine fundus to labia majora
derivative of the gubernaculum and travels through the round inguinal canal
connects the uterus, fallopian tubes, and the ovaries to the pelvic side wall
contains ovaries, fallopian tubes, and round ligaments of the uterus
made up of three components = mesosalpinx, mesometrium, and mesovarium
three parts of the broad ligament
mesosalpinx, mesometrium, mesovarium
connects medial pole of ovary to lateral uterus
derived from gubernaculum
"ovarian Ligament Latches to Lateral uterus"
female reproductive histology
2 - ectocervix
3 - endocervix
4 - transformation zone
5 - uterus
6- fallopian tube
7 - ovary outer surface
1 - stratified squamous epi, nonkeratinized
2 - stratified squamous epi, nonkeratinized
3 - simple columnar epi
4 - squamocolumnar junction
5 - simple columnar epithelium with long tubular glands
6 - simple columnar epi, many ciliated cels, a few secretory (peg) cells
7 - simple cuboidal epi (germinal epi covering surface of ovary)
most common location for cervical cancer?
transformation zone = squamocolumnar junction
female sexual response cycle (1,2,3,4)
what mediates it?
4 steps --> excitement (uterus elevates/vaginal lubrication), plateau (expansion of inner vagina), orgasm (contraction of uterus), and resolution
mediated by the ANS; causes tachycardia and skin flushing
pathway of sperm during ejaculation
erection is controlled by:
emission is controlled by:
parasympathetic nervous system (Point)
sympathetic nervous system (Shoot)
1) NO -->
2) norepinephrine -->
NO --> increases cGMP --> smooth muscle relaxation --> vasodilation --> proerectile
norepinephrine --> increases Ca influx --> smooth muscle contraction --> vasoconstriction --> antierectile
nerve that controls erection?
nerve that controls emission?
erection by pelvic nerve (parasympathetic)
emission by hypogastric nerve (Sympathetic)
visceral and somatic nerves
how do vildenafil/sildenafil work?
they increase/lengthen erection!
by inhibiting cGMP breakdown --> can last longer
function and location?
maintain germ pool and produce spermatocytes
they line the seminiferous tubules
location and function?
located in interstitium of seminiferous tubules
they secrete testosterone in the prescence of LH; testosterone production is unaffected by temperature
location and function?
located in seminiferous tubules
Sertoli cells Support Sperm Synthesis
-secrete androgen binding protein --> maintain testosterone levels
-tight junctions form a blood-testis barrier --> isolates gametes from immune attack
-support and nourish spermatozoa
sertoli cells or leydig cells: which is temperature sensitive?
sertoli cells are Sensitive
when T increases, sperm production decreases and decreased inhibin
--increased temperature is seen in varicocele and cryptorchidism