Borderline between foregut and midgut
Blood supply of midgut
superior mesenteric artery
Innervation of foregut
sympathetic; greater splanchnic nerve (T5-9 psinal cord segments)
Dermatome of T5-T9
Parasympathetic innervation of midgut
Secondary retroperitoneal organs
All of those that are GI and retroperitoneal. Those that were intraperitoneal in embryonic development and became retroperitoneal later via folding.
Main differences between jejunum and ileum
- Jejunum is thicker and more vascular - Jejunum wider lumen - Jejunum has circum mucosal folds that are large, tall, closely packed. - Peyer's patches: aggregated lymphatic follicles in the lamina propria of the ileum and lower jejunum (MALT)
Parasympathetic innervation of hindgut
Significance of the L colic flexure
Transition of parasympathetic innervation from vagus to S2,3,4 (midgut to hindgut)
the base of the appendix. The tip of the appendix could be anywhere.
Sympathetic innervation of gut results in....
inhibition of peristaltic movement. stress --> constipation.
What happens to GIT sphincters in parasympathetic innervation?
Sphincters open up. Parasympathetic innervation induces peristalsis. S2-3-4 keeps the poo on the floor (peristaltic movement opens sphincter and poop comes out).
Visceral afferent fibres travel with...
sympathetic visceral afferents for the most part... EXCEPT for visceral afferents that detect distension of stomach. Those travel w parasympathetic fibres to hypothalamus to tell us to stop eating.
Starts as dull pain in the midline. When inflammation worsens and begins to involve the peritoneum, then the pain becomes localized correctly and is ~sharp~.
A: dura mater
B: arachnoid mater
b) subarachnoid space
A: a branch of dorsal ramus
B: ventral ramus
C: dorsal root ganglion
What what vertebral level does the spinal cord terminate?
It terminates at L1-L2
At what vertebral level does the subarachnoid space terminate?
It extends past the end of the spinal cord (L1/L2) to the inferior border of S2 (interface with S3)
Where goes the lymphatic drainage from the breast?
75% to axillary lymph nodes and the rest go to parasternal lymph nodes.
Describe the innervation of the breast
supplied by the 2nd-6th intercostal nerves
The nipple is innervated by the 4th intercostal nerve.
Describe the blood supply to the breast
The blood is supplied by the axillary artery, internal thoracic artery, and anterior intercostal arteries
What is this artery?
The internal thoracic artery. It supplies the breast along with the axillary artery and the anterior intercostal arteries that branch from it.
What are the boundaries of the thoracic inlet and outlet?
Inlet: T1, rib 1, sternum
Outlet: Closed by the diaphragm
What is the anatomical and clinical importance of the plane from the sternal angle to T4/5 intervertebral disk? (4)
Important for counting ribs (articulates with rib II), bifurcation of trachea, beginning and end of aortic arch, top of middle mediastinum (and divides superior and inferior mediastinum).
Describe the neurovascular contents of an intercostal space
Intercostal vein, artery, and nerve (in that order from posterior to inferior)
(the posterior artery component arises from the aorta and the anterior component arises from the thoracic artery)
Describe the course of an intercostal neurovascular bundle and the importance of this for intercostal nerve blocks and the insertion of chest drains.
The bundle travels along the top of each intercostal space in the costal groove of the rib above.
Intercostal nerve is the anterior ramus of a thoracic spinal nerve (T1-T11) and is the least protected structure in the costal groove because it is at the bottom.
*** look into this more
Origin of the phrenic nerve and what it does
C3,4,5 keeps you alive! It innervates the diaphragm.
What is the clnical importance of the fact that the pleural cavities rise above the level of the 1st rib?
Injuries of the neck may therefore implicate the lungs.
At which vertebral level does the trachea bifurcate?
L and R coronary ostia (openings for coronary artery originating from aorta)