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Med 1 UBC Fall 2019 > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (72)
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Borderline between foregut and midgut

duodenal papilla


Blood supply of midgut

superior mesenteric artery


Innervation of foregut

sympathetic; greater splanchnic nerve (T5-9 psinal cord segments)


Dermatome of T5-T9

Epigastric region


Parasympathetic innervation of midgut

vagus nerve


Secondary retroperitoneal organs

All of those that are GI and retroperitoneal. Those that were intraperitoneal in embryonic development and became retroperitoneal later via folding.


Main differences between jejunum and ileum

- Jejunum is thicker and more vascular - Jejunum wider lumen - Jejunum has circum mucosal folds that are large, tall, closely packed. - Peyer's patches: aggregated lymphatic follicles in the lamina propria of the ileum and lower jejunum (MALT)


Parasympathetic innervation of hindgut



Significance of the L colic flexure

Transition of parasympathetic innervation from vagus to S2,3,4 (midgut to hindgut)


McBurney's point

the base of the appendix. The tip of the appendix could be anywhere.


Sympathetic innervation of gut results in....

inhibition of peristaltic movement. stress --> constipation.


What happens to GIT sphincters in parasympathetic innervation?

Sphincters open up. Parasympathetic innervation induces peristalsis. S2-3-4 keeps the poo on the floor (peristaltic movement opens sphincter and poop comes out).


Visceral afferent fibres travel with...

sympathetic visceral afferents for the most part... EXCEPT for visceral afferents that detect distension of stomach. Those travel w parasympathetic fibres to hypothalamus to tell us to stop eating.


Referred pain...

Starts as dull pain in the midline. When inflammation worsens and begins to involve the peritoneum, then the pain becomes localized correctly and is ~sharp~.


A: dura mater

B: arachnoid mater

b) subarachnoid space


A: a branch of dorsal ramus

B: ventral ramus

C: dorsal root ganglion


What what vertebral level does the spinal cord terminate?

It terminates at L1-L2


At what vertebral level does the subarachnoid space terminate?

It extends past the end of the spinal cord (L1/L2) to the inferior border of S2 (interface with S3)


Where goes the lymphatic drainage from the breast?

75% to axillary lymph nodes and the rest go to parasternal lymph nodes. 


Describe the innervation of the breast

supplied by the 2nd-6th intercostal nerves

The nipple is innervated by the 4th intercostal nerve. 



Describe the blood supply to the breast

The blood is supplied by the axillary artery, internal thoracic artery, and anterior intercostal arteries


What is this artery?

The internal thoracic artery. It supplies the breast along with the axillary artery and the anterior intercostal arteries that branch from it. 


What are the boundaries of the thoracic inlet and outlet?

Inlet: T1, rib 1, sternum

Outlet: Closed by the diaphragm


What is the anatomical and clinical importance of the plane from the sternal angle to T4/5 intervertebral disk? (4)

Important for counting ribs (articulates with rib II), bifurcation of trachea, beginning and end of aortic arch, top of middle mediastinum (and divides superior and inferior mediastinum).



Describe the neurovascular contents of an intercostal space

Intercostal vein, artery, and nerve (in that order from posterior to inferior)


(the posterior artery component arises from the aorta and the anterior component arises from the thoracic artery)


Describe the course of an intercostal neurovascular bundle and the importance of this for intercostal nerve blocks and the insertion of chest drains. 

The bundle travels along the top of each intercostal space in the costal groove of the rib above. 

Intercostal nerve is the anterior ramus of a thoracic spinal nerve (T1-T11) and is the least protected structure in the costal groove because it is at the bottom. 


*** look into this more


Origin of the phrenic nerve and what it does

C3,4,5 keeps you alive! It innervates the diaphragm. 


What is the clnical importance of the fact that the pleural cavities rise above the level of the 1st rib?

Injuries of the neck may therefore implicate the lungs. 


At which vertebral level does the trachea bifurcate?



L and R coronary ostia (openings for coronary artery originating from aorta)