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Med 1 UBC Fall 2019 > Radiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Radiology Deck (26)
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1

psoas muscle

radiographic marker of retroperitoneum. If they aren't seen on radiograph, it may be that they are obscured by pathology.

2

3-6-9 rule

Parameters of normal bowel size. Small bowel diameter < 3 cm Large bowel diameter < 6 cm Cecal diameter < 9cm

3

Markers of bowel distension on xray

- small bowel contains valvulae conniventes - folds. When you see the lines across the lumen indicate small bowel dilation - large bowel dilations may be surgical emergency. Haustra are lines of large bowel - do not cross entire lumen.

4

why get pt to sit upright or an xray (supine x ray)

Reveals air-fluid levels that are a result of sluggish movement in the bowel, allowing time for fluid to level out and air to rise. - more than 3 air-fluid levels is abnormal.

5

pneumoperitoneum

air in intra-peritoneal space - suggests perforation of an intraperitoneal portion of GIT; What organs would be repsonsible?

6

retroperitoneum

air in retro-peritoneal space - suggests perforation of an retroperitoneal portion of GIT What organs would be responsible?

7

C-HAND

For rectal bleeding. Check pneumonic. Colitis Hemorrhoids Angiodysplasia Neoplasm Diverticulosis

8

Good modalities for imaging bones

radiographs and CT because they're high contrast

9

Good modalities for imaging uterus

Ultrasound and MRI good definition of soft tissues

10

Good modalities for imaging prostate

Ultrasound and MRI good definition of soft tissues

11

Good modalities for imaging bladder

Ultrasound and CT ultrasound = good definition of soft tissue CT = high contrast ; useful when there is a concern for caliculi

12

What modalities to use first for adults of reproductive age?

Ultrasound and MRI (have less ionizing radiation) Radio graphs and CT had more ionizing radiation.

13

Orienting an ultrasound image

point of cone is the top (where the probe is on the skin) and base of cone is the bottom. in an abdominal US, you would see skin at top, followed by bladder, then uterus.

14

Endovaginal exam

- ultrasound - allows us to get closer to uterus because we don't have to go through bladder.

15

Ultrasound in pregnancy: when they can be done

- Can see a pregnancy on ultrasound as early as 5 weeks - at 11 weeks dating ultrasound; may get a transvaginal exam for better detail - 20 weeks detailed anatomical scan

16

Visualizing follicles in ovaries

Can see them in MRI. Ultrasound can see cysts.

17

Visualizing prostate gland

transabdominal or transrectal ultrasound. Transrectal exam can take biopsy at the same time. Transrectal exam is therefore only done when pt needs a biopsy. The size of the prostate gland has nothing to do with cancer. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is normal, but may interfere with urination. Not well seen on CT.

18

Ionizing radiation in which modalities

X Ray &amp; CT (MRI and ultrasound do not)

19

In CT how do we describe density?

We use the word attenuation to describe density differences in the scan. Higher positive score = more dense.

20

Describe C2

Has the dens process that sticks up to articulate with the base of the skull. Remember to count two at the top of the cervical spine to account for this.

21

Describe C1

It is a little ring that sits on C2 called the anterior arch.

22

Special view for evaluating C1 and C2

Open mouth view

23

CRT

Cardiothoracic ration used clinically to assess enlarged heart or excess fluid in pericardial space. mediastinum wides/thoracic cavity width

24

Atypical cervical vertebrae

C1 and C2, don't have typical components and behave differently in trauma situations

25

Recognize dense of C2 nestled in C1

26