Week 6-7: Lungs Flashcards Preview

Med 1 UBC Fall 2019 > Week 6-7: Lungs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 6-7: Lungs Deck (68)
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1

3 pathologies of pneumonia

1) aspiration
2) droplet transmission
3) hematogenous spread

2

What colour is gram positive?

purple

3

What colour is gram negative?

pink

4

What sort of shape is a coccobacilli?

Rods and spheres and rod/spheres

Ex: haemophilus influenzae

5

What do diplococci look like?

cocci in pairs

Ex: moraxella catarrhalis

6

Most common pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia?

Step pneum
Haemophilus influenzae
Moroxella

7

Tidal volume

the amount you normally breathe in and out (500 mL)

8

Inspiratory reserve volume

The amount you can breathe in if you tried really hard (1900 mL additional)

9

Expiratory reserve volume

The amount you can breathe out if you try really hard (700 mL additional)

10

Residual volume

the amount left in your lungs that will never be breathed out. 1200 mL

11

Inspiratory capacity

the total amount you can forcibly breathe in (TV + IRV)

12

Functional Residual Capacity

Residual Volume + Expiratory reserve volume (the amount left in your lungs if you are just breathing normally)

13

Vital capacity

Inspiratory reserve volume + Tidal Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume

14

Total Lung Capacity

All lung volumes combined (including residual capacity)

15

Hyperventilation

ventilation exceeds the metabolic demands of the body

16

Hypoventilation

ventilation is insufficient to meet the demands of the body

17

Minute Ventilation

the amount of air inhaled or exhales from the lungs per minute.
Product of Tidal Volume x Resp Rate

18

Alveolar Ventilation

The amount of air reaching the alveolus per minute. This is air that takes part in gas exchange.

19

Dead Space Ventilation

The volume of air inhaled that does not take part in gas exchange because it remains in the conducting airways or it reaches alveoli that are not perfused or poorly perfused.

20

Anatomic Dead Space

Total volume of the conducting airways from the mouth/nose down to the level of the terminal bronchioles.

~150 mL on average in humans

21

Alveolar Dead Space

Volume of air in the alveoli that does not participate in gas exchange (ventilation without perfusion)

22

Physiologic Dead Space

Sum of anatomic and alveolar dead space

23

Name the factors that affect diffusive transport of gas from alveolar air to pulmonary capillary blood and discuss how these relate to the diffusing capacity of the lungs

1. Membrane thickness
2. Membrane surface area
3. Pressure difference across the membrane
4. Diffusion coefficient of gas

24

Partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in alveoli

PAO2 = 105 mmHg (compared to 159 in atmospheric air)
PACO2 = 40 mmHg (compared to 0.3 in atmospheric air)

25

Partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in mixed venous blood

PO2 in venous blood = 40 mmHg
PCO2 in venous blood = 45 mmHg

26

Partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in arterial blood

PaO2 = 100 mmHg
PaCO2 = 40 mmHg

27

Define pnemonia

Pneumonia is a generic term that refers to inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma. It is often associated with consolidation (solidification) of the lung. Usually infectious etiology.

28

Predisposing factors for pneumonia

1. suppression of cough reflex (anaesthesia, neuromuscular disorders)
2. Impaired immunity
3. Impaired mucociliary apparatus (smoking, syndrome)
4. Impaired alveolar macrophage function (alcohol, smoking)
5. Pulmonary edema (cardiac failure)
6. General debility (alcoholism, post-op, malnourishment)

29

Lobar pneumonia

Restricted to lobe; Most common CAP; majority are strep pneum

30

Broncho pneumonia

- patchy infective consolidation of the lung in a predominantly lobular distribution.
- Common, especially in hospitalized patients; often terminal complication
- Usually bilateral
- Pre-existing bronchitis spreads to cause bronchiolitis and extends to involve adjacent lung parenchyma