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Flashcards in Anatomy and Physiology Deck (51):
1

Directional terms used by medical professionals refer to the human body in the BLANK position, describes a person standing erect with the feet and palms facing examiner.

Anatomical

2

The relationships of internal body structures are classified into anatomical planes. These planes maybe viewed as imaginary straight-line divisions of the human body. The BLANK plane runs vertically through the middle of the body creating right and left section.

Sagittal

3

The relationships of internal body structures are classified into anatomical planes. These planes maybe viewed as imaginary straight-line divisions of the human body. The plane that is to one side of the midline is said to be BLANK.

Parasagittal

4

The relationships of internal body structures are classified into anatomical planes. These planes maybe viewed as imaginary straight-line divisions of the human body. The BLANK plane divides the body into top and bottom sections known as superior and inferior.

Transverse or horizontal

5

The relationships of internal body structures are classified into anatomical planes. These planes maybe viewed as imaginary straight-line divisions of the human body. The BLANK plane divides the body into front and back, these are known as anterior and posterior sections.

Frontal or coronal

6

The human body is divided into a number of regions. This division helps to organize anatomical structures. The BLANK region is made up of the limbs or extremities.

Appendicular

7

The human body is divided into a number of regions. This division helps to organize anatomical structures. The BLANK region is made up of the head, neck, thorax, and abdomen.

Axial

8

The thorax contains two pleural cavities and a pericardial cavity. These cavities are lined with a serous membrane. The serous membrane that comes into contact with the organ is BLANK.

Visceral

9

The thorax contains two pleural cavities and a pericardial cavity. These cavities are lined with a serous membrane. The serous membrane that comes into contact with the cavity wall is BLANK

Parietal

10

How many vertebrae compose the spine?

33

11

What is the costal margin?

Lower edge of the chest (thorax) formed by the bottom edge of the rib cage. Sometimes referred to as the costal arch, the costal margin is the medial margin formed by the seventh to tenth ribs.

12

Where is the cardiac sphincter?

Located where the lower end of the esophagus joins the stomach. The muscle serves as a valve that contracts to prevent acid reflux and relaxes to allow food to pass.

13

What are the four lobes of the brain?

Cerebellum, Cortex, Brain Stem, and Diencephalon

14

List the solid organs of the body?

Liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys.

15

List the hallow organs of the body?

stomach
gallbladder
small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum)
large intestines (cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus)
urinary bladder

16

Essential role in digestion and breaking down food to smaller particles.

Amylase in salivary glad secretions begins the digestive process

What am I?

Mouth

17

Hallow muscular tube that transports food from mouth to stomach

What am I?

Esophagus

18

Hallow organ in LUQ, receives food from esophagus to continue the digestive process.

Covered by mucus membrane to protect itself from the low pH of the hydrochloric acid

What am I?

Stomach

19

Major sites of digestion and absorption.

Food moves through with a process called peristalsis.

What am I?

Intestines

20

Most digestion and absorption occurs in me.

partially digested food empties into duodenum from the stomach at the pyloric sphincter.

digested food reaches the ileum and enters the large intestine via the ileocecal valve

what am I?

small intestine

21

I begin at the ileocecal valve and am divided into four principle regions

absorb essential vitamins produced by gut bacteria

re-absorbs water from feces

production of feces

what am I?

large intestine

22

produces saliva that lubricates food for easier

passage produce amylase the initiates the digestive process

what am I?

salivary glands

23

play a major role in processing food into a form useable by the digestive system

what am I?

teeth

24

largest body in the organ

located in the RUQ

secretes bile for the digestion of fats

responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins

detoxification of toxins (alcohol)

excretion of bilirubin

storage of glycogen

what am I?

liver

25

located behind the liver

store bile

after eating a fatty meal, I secrete bile via the cystic duct to the duodenum

what am I?

gall bladder

26

lies behind the stomach and cross the LUQ and the RUQ

secretes digestive enzymes called "_____ juice"

has endocrine function as well, the islets of Langerhans secrete hormones such as glucagon, insulin and somatostatin

what am I?

pancreas

27

paired organs located in the flanks

contain nephrons which are the functional units. nephrons responsible for filtering blood, returning useful substances, removing non useful substances, producing urine.

Have an endocrine function secreting the hormone's angiotensin II, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide. these hormones play a part in the regulation of BP and in maintaining fluid electrolyte balance.

what am I?

kidneys

28

tubes that drain urine from the kidneys to the bladder

location for kidney stones to lodge

what am I?

ureters

29

located in the pelvis

receives and stores urine from the kidneys

what am I?

urinary bladder

30

tube that drains the bladder to outside

shorter in females vs males

what am I?

urethra

31

small walnut sized organs located adjacent to the uterus

produce female hormones and the component of reproduction, the ovum

what am I?

ovaries

32

hollow tubes connecting the ovary to the uterus

pathway for ovum transport from ovary to uterus

fertilization occurs in me

open end allows for direct access to abdominal cavity and uterus

site for implantation of fertilized ovum, resulting in ectopic pregnancy

what am I?

fallopian tube

33

hollow muscular organ located low in pelvic region

inferior portion called the cervix enters the vagina, the superior portion is the fundus

site for implantation and fetal development

what am I?

uterus

34

extends from uterus to vulva

functions as birth canal

what am I?

vagina

35

responsible for producing male hormones and sperm

what am I?

testes

36

small appendages on the tests serving as a reservoir for sperm

what am I?

epididymis

37

located at the base of the bladder

responsible for production of fluid to transport sperm

as men age it may become enlarged (BPH) and obstructing urine flow

prostate

38

small muscular tube responsible for transport of sperm from the testes to the urethra during ejaculation

vasectomy is male birth control procedure, involves cutting of me

what am I?

vas deferens

39

male organ of copulation

contains sperm

what am I?

penis

40

what part of the body acts as a thermostat

hypothalamus

41

the primary source of upper airway obstruction in an unconscious patient?

tongue

42

BLANK is an opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus and the vagus nerve pass. It is located in the right crus, one of the two tendinous structures that connect the diaphragm to the spine.

esophageal hiatus

43

BLANK is a rare heart condition in which your heart points toward the right side of your chest instead of the left side. It is congenital, which means people are born with this abnormality

Dextrocardia

44

how many bones are in a human body?

206

45

every bone in the body connects to at least one other bone by the way of joints except?

hyoid bone

46

what are the three classes of joints?

synovial = contain synovial fluid that allows for considerable movement. Most joints in the appendicular skeleton are synovial (elbow, knee, shoulder, hip)

cartilaginous = unite two bones by means of hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage, these joints are slightly moveable (epiphyseal plate of a growing bone and intervertebral disks)

fibrous = two bones that have little or no movement and are united by fibrous tissue (skull).

47

what are the three major types of muscle?

smooth
cardiac
skeletal *most common

48

Are muscles connected to bones by?

tendons

49

Are bone connected to cartilage by?

ligaments

50

_____ mL of blood may be released into the lower leg from a tibial or fibular fracture

_____ mL of blood may be released into the thigh from a femoral fracture

_____ mL of blood may be released into the pelvis from a pelvic fracture

500

1000

2000

51

how many teeth does a normal adult have?

32