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Flashcards in anatomy and physiology of pregnancy Deck (44)
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1

Parity?

number of pregnancies carried past 20 weeks – not number of fetuses born & regardless of alive or stillborn

2

Gravida?

a woman who has been pregnant

3

Primigravida?

a woman pregnant for the first time

4

Primipara?

a woman who has delivered one child past gestation of 20 weeks

5

multigravida?

a pregnant woman who has been pregnant before

6

multipara?

a woman who has carried two or more pregnancies to 20 weeks or more

7

Nulligravida

a woman who has never been and is not currently pregnant

8

Nullipara?

a woman who has not completed a pregnancy with a fetus or fetuses who have reached 20 weeks or more

9

Preterm?

pregnancy that has reached 20 weeks of gestation but before completion of 37 weeks of gestation (20- 26.6 wks)

10

Viability

capacity to live outside uterus; about 22 to 25 weeks gestation are on the threshold of viability
These very premature infants are vulnerable to brain injury

11

Name the term weeks

early term
full term
late term
post term

Early Term- 37 0/7wk- 38 6/7wks
Full Term- 39 0/7wks- 40 6/7wks
Late Term-41 0/7wks- 41 6/7wks
Post Term- 42 0/7wks and beyond Term: pregnancy from beginning of week 38 of gestation to end of week 42 of gestation

12

Two digits. define

G
P

G – gravida – number of pregnancy
P – para- over 20 weeks

13

what is

GTPAL stand for ?

5 digits
GTPAL
Gravidity (# pregnancies)
Term (deliveries >37 wk)
Preterm (deliveries >20wk but <37wk)
Abortions (deliveries <20wks spontaneous or induced)
Living children

14

Tell me about pregnancy tests

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is earliest biochemical marker of pregnancy

Pregnancy tests based on recognition of hCG or β subunit of hCG

Can be detected in serum or urine as early as 7 to 8 days after ovulation

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
testing is most popular method of testing for pregnancy
ELISA technology is the basis for most over-the-counter home pregnancy tests
Medication use, hormone based tumors, or improper collection may cause inaccurate results

15

Presumptive signs of pregnancy

Least indicative of pregnancy
Amenorrhea
N/V
Breast changes
Quickening
Skin changes
Linea nigra
Melasma
Striae gravidarum

16

Probable signs of pregnancy?

More reliable & more diagnostic, but not true diagnosis
Positive lab tests
Chadwick’s sign
Goodell’s sign
Hegar’s sign
Ballottement
Fetal outline felt by examiner

17

Positive signs of pregnancy

Ultrasound of fetus
Fetal heart tones by Doppler or ultrasound
Fetal movement felt by examiner

18

Cervix characteristics when uterine growth in pregnancy occurs

it becomes vascular and edematous

19

define

goodells sign

chadwick sign

hegar sign


Goodell’s sign -Softening of cervix- throughout pregnancy to prepare for delivery

Chadwick sign- bluish hue of the cervix and vagina

Hegar Sign- Softening of the area between the cervix and body of the uterus

20

what secretes progesterone and estrogen during the first 12 weeks? and why

Corpus luteum

Maintains pregnancy until placenta formed & functioning

21

What happens to the vagina during the growth of the uterine during pregnancy?

Chadwick’s sign
Vagina purplish (and cervix)Increased vascularity of vagina
Increased acidity to resist bacteria
Increased sensitivity
increased vaginal discharge - leukorrhea

22

What happens to the breast during the growth of the uterine during pregnancy?

and what do you educate?

Increase in size, vascularity
Feelings of fullness & tenderness as early as 6 weeks
Colostrum as early as 16 weeks

*** Education- Supportive bra;
Discuss value of breastfeeding
early; Reinforce self breast exam

23

What happens to the respiratory system during the growth of the uterine during pregnancy?

and what do you educate?

Shortness of breath
Diaphragm displaced upward
Lungs expand horizontally
Nasal congestion
Elevated estrogen
Capillary engorgement

** Education:
Warm compresses, humidifier, position changes

24

What happens to the cardiovascular system during the growth of the uterine during pregnancy in regards to just blood volume?

Blood volume increases 1500 ml
1000 ml plasma
450 ml RBCs

Blood volume 25-40% greater than nonpregnant levels

Physiologic anemia: apparent decrease in hemoglobin & hematocrit

RBC production increases 30-33%

25

What happens to the cardiovascular system during the growth of the uterine during pregnancy in regards to blood cells?

and what do you educate?

Hemoglobin- less than 11.5 g/Dl or hematocrit less than 30% is considered anemia

WBCs -increase to 5000-12000/cubic mm.
Cardiac output increases – 30 – 50%
Increased Pulse (14-20-wk)
Increased Cardiac output
Decreased Blood Pressure (slight)- 1st trimester- 32wks Back to baseline in 3rd trimester
Supine hypotension syndrome
Lying supine obstructs blood return from extremities, decreases cardiac output, hypotension
** Education- Tilt; change positions slowly

26

What happens to the renal system with urinary output?

what about specific gravity?

urine output increases

sg decreases

27

What renal test do you do in pregnancies?

Creatinine clearance best test of renal function
Done on 24-hour urine sample
*** Education: Empty bladder completely; limit fluid intake in evening; avoid caffeine

28

What happens to gastrointestinal system during pregnancy?

Nausea/vomiting: Causes
HCG & progesterone increase
Estrogen increase
Glucose levels decrease
Heartburn due to displacement of stomach by uterus - pyrosis
Slowing of GI tract leads to constipation, flatulence, heartburnDecreased tone and motility GI- incr P4
Reflux; Heartburn (pyrosis)
Hemorrhoids common
Pica – cravings for non-food items such as clay, laundry starch, and ice
Gallstones
Cholestasis
Ptyalism – excessive
salivation

29

What do you want to educate in pregnancy in regards to gastrointestinal systems?

*** Education***
Small frequent meals;
Separate liquids from solids
Ginger; B6
Eat crackers before getting out of bed
Avoid greasy, spicy foods or triggers
Stool Softeners

30

What happens to the musculoskeletal system in pregnancy?

Pelvic ligaments soften
Excessive mobility of joints
Lordosis - pride of pregnancy
Diastasis recti
*** Education-
Maternity Belts
Posture & mobility