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Flashcards in Genetics part 2 Deck (35)
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1

What is mitosis?

Growth and replacement of body cells

2

What is meiosis?

Gamete cell production

3

How long does it take sperm to find the egg?

5 minutes to 6 hours

4

What is capacitation?

process that prepares sperm for fertilization...

1. removes protective coating on sperms head
2. sperm release hyaluronidase to break down zone pellucida on the ovum
3. ovum moved through uterine tube by cilia
4. sperm and ovum meet in the outer this of the uterine tub
5. one 1 sperm gets thru, zone reaction blocks out the others.

5

When is the Pre-embryonic stage?

Conception through day 14

6

How long is the egg an embryo?

day 1 - week 8

7

How long is the thing a fetus ?

week 9 - birth

8

How long is gestation?

10 lunar months
9 calendar months
40 weeks from conception
280 days

9

How many chromosomes does each gamete have?

23 and when fertilized 46.

10

On day 2 what is it?

A zygote

11

What happens on day 3 ?

- first undifferentiated cell mass
- travels through the uterine tube.

all cells start dividing but they don't have a job yet (undifferentiated)

12

What happens on day 4 and what is it?

Blastocyst
day 4

morula starts to differentiate...starts to figure out it's job.

13

What are layers of the blastocyst on day 4?

Two layers:
Inner: Fetus and amnion
Outer: Trophoblast (chorion and placenta)

14

What happens on day 8-10?

Blastocyst imbeds in endometrium, usually in fundus
Mom may experience implantation bleeding(spotting that can be confused with period)

15

What and where is decidua basalis?

directly under the embryo and it's the thickened endometrium?

16

What is the decidua
capsularis?

encapsulatesthe trophoblast(outer layer of developing embryo)

17

What is the decidua vera?

remainder of the uterine lining.

18

What is the chorionic villi?

Finger-like projections from trophoblast
Link to maternal blood supply
Excrete waste until the placenta takes over

19

what are the 3 layers of cells aka "germ layers"

-Ectoderm
-Mesoderm
-Endoderm (stems in yolk sac-early
GI system)

it is the most critical period for development.

20

What are the membranes?

Chorion
Amnion/amniotic cavity

21

when does the fetus start contributing for amniotic fluid?

11 weeks

22

What does the umbilical cord do? tell me about it

Supplies embryo and fetus with maternal nutrients and oxygen-rich blood
Forms from connecting stalk
2 arteries, 1 vein (AVA) and Wharton’s jelly for cushioning and helps blood not get compressed.

23

What does the placenta do? tell me about it

Involved in fetal circulation by day 17
Functions as endocrine gland, metabolic function and waste, and nutrient storage
Certain pathogens and drugs can pass through

24

Does estrogen speed or slow things up?

Estrogen: speeds things up, n/v, breast tenderness

25

Does progesterone speed or slow things up?

Progesterone: slows things down, constipation

26

When does the heartbeat start and how fast is it?

3 weeks

110-160 bpm

27

whats the fetal Hob compared to mom?

Hgb carries 20-30% more oxygen than mother
Hgb concentration is 50% more than mother

28

what is lanugo?

Lanugo:fine soft hair to keep them warm. They usually shed lanugo before coming out. If they’re born prematurely can come out with a bunch of hair.

29

what is vernix?

Vernix: cheesy like substance . Moisturizer to keep baby from getting wrinkly.

30

when does the reproductive system develop?

12 weeks