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Flashcards in Common menstrual disorders Deck (53)
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1

When is menarche usually? menstrual period

around 13 years old in the United States.

2

What happens during mensration in all the hormones?

↓ Estrogen(E2) & Progesterone (P4)- stimulates hypothalamus (GnRh)

↑ GnRH stimulates follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

↑ FSH stimulates development of the ovarian follicles= ↑ovarian production of E2

Slight midcycle ↓ E2 triggers GnRH to stimulate the anterior pit to secrete luteinizing hormone (LH)

A Surge of LH and small ↑ E2 stimulates ovulation. If fertilization doesn’t occur- E2 & P4 decrease and the corpus luteum regresses

3

What happens in the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle?

-Follicular phase
-Before ovulation FSH & E2 cause development of 1-30 follicles
-LH causes 1 oocyte to mature and is released (usually around day 14)

4

What happens in the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle?

Luteal Phase
-Begins after ovulation- ends with menstruation
-Corpus luteum secretes E2/P4= peak day 8
-Corpus luteum regresses without conception

5

What's the MENSTRUAL PHASE of the endometrial cycle?

The shedding of the functional endometrium

6

Whats the PROLIFERATIVE PHASE of the endometrial cycle?

E2 causes- Rapid endometrial growth

7

What's the SECRETORY PHASE of the endometrial cycle?

P4 causes endometrium to thicken- ↑ blood

8

What's the ISCHEMIC PHASE of the endometrial cycle?

Spasm and necrosis of the functional layer of the endometriuum

9

The surge of which hormone causes Which hormone is responsible for the maturation and release of an oocyte at midcycle?

LH

10

What is Amenorrhea?

Absence of menstrual flow

11

Primary and Secondary cause for Amenorrhea?

primary: anatomical, disease
process

secondary: pregnancy

12

s/s of amenorrhea? what's the assessment?

s/s: absence of menstruation
assessment: history and exam

13

What is hypogonadotropic?
and what is the cause?

Absence of menstrual flow due to hypothalamic suppression
Etiology: stress, low weight range, excessive exercise.

14

S/S of hypogonadoptropic amenorrhea?

S/S: absence of menstruation

15

assessment and management for hypogonadotropic amenorrhea?

Assessment: history & physical examination; Hcg, FSH, TSH, prolactin
Management: Counseling & education regarding stress, exercise, and weight loss. ** OCA’s, Ca supplements

16

What is dysmenorrhea?

Pain during or shortly before menstruation

17

What is primary dysmenorrhea and what is the cause?

Abnormally increased uterine activity
Etiology: Physiologic alteration; prostaglandin excess

18

S/S of primary dysmenorrhea?

S& S: severe cramps, back pain, GI sx


19

Management of primary dysmenorrhea?

Management:
Alleviating discomfort
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
OCA’s
Education

20

What is secondary dysmenorrhea? and whats the cause?

Acquired menstrual pain associated with possible pelvic pathology
Etiology: Adenomyosis, Endometriosis, PID, fibroids

21

What are the S/S of secondary dysmenorrhea and what is the assessment?

S&S: heavy mentrual flow, dull lower abd ache
Assessment:
Pelvic exam/ USG exam

22

What is the management of secondary dysmenorrhea?

Management:
Treatment directed to removal of underlying pathology.
Comfort: NSAIDS, OCA’s, diet, exercise, heating pads

23

When a nurse is counseling a woman for primary dysmenorrhea, which nonpharmacologic intervention might be recommended?

D. Using a heating pad on the abdomen to relieve cramping

***double check for the answer.

24

What is PMS premenstrual syndrome?

cyclic symptoms occurring in luteal phase of menstrual cycle.

when you're cray cray

25

What is the cause of PMS?

Etiology: Poorly understood

26

S/S of PMS?

S&S: Cluster of physical, psychologic, and behavioral symptoms

27

Management of PMS?

Management: diet, exercise, and herbal therapies ** education, avoid caffeine, limit ETOH

28

In helping a client manage premenstrual syndrome (PMS), the nurse should:

a. Recommend a diet with more body-building and energy food such as red meat and sugar.
b. Suggest herbal therapies, yoga, and massage.
c. Tell the client to push for medications from the physician as soon as symptoms occur to lessen their severity.
d. Discourage the use of diuretics.

29

What is Endometriosis?

Presence and growth of endometrial tissue outside of uterus

30

What is the cause of endometriosis?

possible retrograde menstruation