Anatomy- Bones and Joints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy- Bones and Joints Deck (44):
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Ossification

Bone formation

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Two methods of ossification

Membranous ossification
Endochondral ossification

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Mesenchyme

Generic name for a disorganized web of unspecialized connective tissue

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Membranous ossification

Mesenchyme cells form the shape of a bone and then gets transformed into bone

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Membranous ossification is more common in which type of bone?

Flat bones

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Process of Endochondral ossification

Starts with mesenchymal model--> mesenchyme is replaced by cartilage (usually hyaline)--> bone replaces cartilage

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Endochondral ossification is utilized more in which type of bones?

Long bones

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(Membranous/endochondral) ossification creates very dense bone

Membranous

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How bones are repaired after fracture in adults

Membranous ossification

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Normal bone growth is done by (membranous/endochondral) ossification

Endochondral

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Hyaline cartilage

-Most common type of cartilage
- no fibers visible at microscopic level

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Fibrocartilage

-Contains large amounts of collagen fibers
-important structural cartilage (intervertebral discs)

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Elastic cartilage

-contains large amounts of elastin
-capable of being stretched and distorted and will regain its shape
-found in outer ears, nose

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Haversian

Remodeling

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Periosteum

Outside lining of bone

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Compact bone (AKA cortical, lamellar)

Solid structure associated with the shaft or the ends of bone
-typically remodeled with Haversian systems

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Woven bone (AKA non lamellar)

Typically young bone that has not yet developed Haversian systems
-Associated with greater amounts of collagen

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Trabecular bone (AKA cancellous, spongy)

Series of bony beams found at the ends of bones

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Endosteum

Inner lining of bone

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Medullary caivity

Space inside the bone with marrow

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Diaphysis

Shaft of bone

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Metaphysis

Growth plate of bone

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Epiphysis

Ends of bone

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Articular cartilage

Covers ends of bones that participate in a joint (usually hyaline cartilage)

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Joint classifications based on movement

Immovable
Highly movable
Slightly movable

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Immovable joints

-Favors stability of structure
-movement only occurs during extreme stress or special physiological situations
- ex. Epiphysis-diaphysis in developing bone

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Highly movable joints

Favors free movement between the bones
Stability occurs through restrictive ligaments or muscular action

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Slightly movable joints

-Compromise between movement and stability
-movement generally occurs only over a small and specialized range
-ex. Intervertebral discs

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Arthroses

Joints

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Synarthroses

Solid joints

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Osseus joints

Bone-bone joints

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Types of osseus joints

Synostosis

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Synostosis

Bones fusing/fused together

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Fibrous joints

Suture
Syndesmosis
Gomphosis

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Syndesmosis

2 bones linked together only by ligaments

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Suture

Bones joined by fibrous connective tissue
-sutures of skull

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Gomphosis

Teeth-to-mandible joint

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Cartilaginous joints

Synchonrosis
Symphysis

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Synconrosis

Metaphysis

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Symphysis

Pubic symphysis
Intervertebral disk

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Diarthroses

2 bones joined together its a joint cavity

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Types of Synovial joints

Planar
Ginglymous (hinge)
Trochoid (pivot)
Condyloid
Ellipsoid
Sellar (saddle)
Spheroidal (ball and socket)

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Features always present in synovial joints

Capsular ligaments
Articular cavity
Articular (hyaline) cartilage
Synovium (synovial fluid)

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Features sometimes present in synovial joints

Intrinsic ligaments
Tendons
Fat pads
Fibrocartilaginous disks
Bursa