Anatomy: Bones and Joints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy: Bones and Joints Deck (52):
1

What is the anatomical position?

1.Upright
2.Face forward
3.Feet toughing at ankles with toes upright
4.Arms by sides with palms facing forwards.
5. Erect penis in males

2

Why do we use the anatomical position?

To provide a reference point for spatial description of the human body

3

What are the three anatomical planes and what angle to they lie at in reference to each other?

Sagittal
Coronal
Transverse

90 Degrees

4

What is a sagittal plane?

Vertical planes passing downwards - median sagittal plane.

5

What is a coronal plane?

Vertical planes going through the side of the body at a right angle to sagittal planes.

6

What are transverse planes?

Also known as horizontal planes as it cuts through the body from front to back.

7

What are the three body cavities?

Cranial, Thoracic and Abdominal.

Diaphragm separates thoracic and abdominal.

8

What does anterior mean?

Nearer to front

9

What does posterior mean?

Nearer to back

10

What does superior mean?

Nearer to head

11

What does inferior mean?

Nearer to feet

12

What does deep mean?

Further from surface

13

What does superficial mean?

Closer to surface or on the surface

14

What does medial mean?

Nearer to medial sagittal plane

15

What does lateral mean?

Further from median sagittal plane

16

Functions of the skeleton?

Support, protection, Locomotion, mineral stores, production of blood cells

17

What are the two parts of the skeleton?

Axial and Appendicular

18

What is in the axial part of the skeleton?

Skull, Vertebral column and thoracic cage

19

What is in the appendicular part of the skeleton?

Limbs and limb girdles

20

What are the 3 types of joints?

Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial

21

Describe fibrous joint and its movement.

Found between bones or cartilage
Joined by fibrous CT
Has little movement

22

What are the two types of fibrous joint?

Sutures and Syndesmoses

23

What are sutures?

Fibrous joints formed between flat bones eg. skull

24

What are Syndesmoses?

Formed between 2 long bones e.g distal end of tibia and fibula

25

What are 2 types of cartilaginous joints?

Primary and Secondary

26

Describe Primary joints.

Jointed by hyelin cartilage, has no movement and are found on epiphyseal growth plates

27

Describe secondary joints.

Connected by fibrocartillage and are found in the mid-sagittal plane and offer limited movement.

28

Describe synovial joints.

Allows movement

Has a smooth bone articulation due to think layer of hyeline cartilage which is lubricated by synovial fluid secreted by synovial membrane

The joint is enclosed in a CT capsule

29

Name the 6 types of synovial joints.

Hinge
Condyloid
Ball and Socket
Plane
Pivot
Saddle

30

Movement of hinge?

One plane - flexion and extension - example is elbow

31

Movement of Condyloid?

2 planes - flexion and extension, abduction and adduction and also circumduction.

Example is wrist

32

Movement of Ball and Socket?

3 planes - Flexion/extension, abduction/adduction and rotation.

Example is glenohumeral joint - shoulder joint

33

Movement of plane?

Allows a gliding movement

Example is carpal bones

34

Movement of pivot?

One bone rotating around the other

Example is the distal/proximal radioulnar joints distal to elbow joint.

35

Movement of saddle?

Same as condyloid joints yet saddle shaped

36

Do humans show anatomical variation?

Yes, however if extreme its classed as an anatomical anomaly

37

What is embryology?

Study of developmental changes in utero

38

What is histology?

Study of microscopic images of tissues

39

Use of histology?

Allows us to understand how parts of the body are put together physically

40

What are the two main types of bone?

Spongy and Compact

41

What is compact bone?

Dense bone forming the outside of the bone - protects body and provides support

42

What is spongy bone?

Porous network found at the ends of long bones - allows space for blood vessles and making blood cells

43

What are the two ways which bone grows?

Intramembranous and endochondral ossification

44

How does intramembranous work?

Bone cells differentiate directly from embryonic mesenchyme and are organised to form a bone

45

How does endochondral work?

The embryonic mesenchyme differentials to form hyelin cartilage model which is replaced by bone.

46

What are the 2 types of bone marrow?

Red - Active marrow always making red blood cells

Yellow - Inactive marrow which can convert to red marrow.

Marrow cavity which has yellow marrow also has adipose tissue hence yellow

47

Describe the funtion of lumps in bones.

Site at which white tendons are inserted into bone

48

Function of smooth areas?

Points of articulation between bones

49

Function of rough areas

Site of ligament or tendon insertion

50

Function of grooves?

Wear and tear

51

Function of holes?

Allow blood vessels or nerves to pass

52

CT scan shows up soft tissue better than an MRI - True or False

False - CT used more for bones