Flashcards in Anatomy: Bones and Joints Deck (52):
What is the anatomical position?
3.Feet toughing at ankles with toes upright
4.Arms by sides with palms facing forwards.
5. Erect penis in males
Why do we use the anatomical position?
To provide a reference point for spatial description of the human body
What are the three anatomical planes and what angle to they lie at in reference to each other?
What is a sagittal plane?
Vertical planes passing downwards - median sagittal plane.
What is a coronal plane?
Vertical planes going through the side of the body at a right angle to sagittal planes.
What are transverse planes?
Also known as horizontal planes as it cuts through the body from front to back.
What are the three body cavities?
Cranial, Thoracic and Abdominal.
Diaphragm separates thoracic and abdominal.
What does anterior mean?
Nearer to front
What does posterior mean?
Nearer to back
What does superior mean?
Nearer to head
What does inferior mean?
Nearer to feet
What does deep mean?
Further from surface
What does superficial mean?
Closer to surface or on the surface
What does medial mean?
Nearer to medial sagittal plane
What does lateral mean?
Further from median sagittal plane
Functions of the skeleton?
Support, protection, Locomotion, mineral stores, production of blood cells
What are the two parts of the skeleton?
Axial and Appendicular
What is in the axial part of the skeleton?
Skull, Vertebral column and thoracic cage
What is in the appendicular part of the skeleton?
Limbs and limb girdles
What are the 3 types of joints?
Describe fibrous joint and its movement.
Found between bones or cartilage
Joined by fibrous CT
Has little movement
What are the two types of fibrous joint?
Sutures and Syndesmoses
What are sutures?
Fibrous joints formed between flat bones eg. skull
What are Syndesmoses?
Formed between 2 long bones e.g distal end of tibia and fibula
What are 2 types of cartilaginous joints?
Primary and Secondary
Describe Primary joints.
Jointed by hyelin cartilage, has no movement and are found on epiphyseal growth plates
Describe secondary joints.
Connected by fibrocartillage and are found in the mid-sagittal plane and offer limited movement.
Describe synovial joints.
Has a smooth bone articulation due to think layer of hyeline cartilage which is lubricated by synovial fluid secreted by synovial membrane
The joint is enclosed in a CT capsule
Name the 6 types of synovial joints.
Ball and Socket
Movement of hinge?
One plane - flexion and extension - example is elbow
Movement of Condyloid?
2 planes - flexion and extension, abduction and adduction and also circumduction.
Example is wrist
Movement of Ball and Socket?
3 planes - Flexion/extension, abduction/adduction and rotation.
Example is glenohumeral joint - shoulder joint
Movement of plane?
Allows a gliding movement
Example is carpal bones
Movement of pivot?
One bone rotating around the other
Example is the distal/proximal radioulnar joints distal to elbow joint.
Movement of saddle?
Same as condyloid joints yet saddle shaped
Do humans show anatomical variation?
Yes, however if extreme its classed as an anatomical anomaly
What is embryology?
Study of developmental changes in utero
What is histology?
Study of microscopic images of tissues
Use of histology?
Allows us to understand how parts of the body are put together physically
What are the two main types of bone?
Spongy and Compact
What is compact bone?
Dense bone forming the outside of the bone - protects body and provides support
What is spongy bone?
Porous network found at the ends of long bones - allows space for blood vessles and making blood cells
What are the two ways which bone grows?
Intramembranous and endochondral ossification
How does intramembranous work?
Bone cells differentiate directly from embryonic mesenchyme and are organised to form a bone
How does endochondral work?
The embryonic mesenchyme differentials to form hyelin cartilage model which is replaced by bone.
What are the 2 types of bone marrow?
Red - Active marrow always making red blood cells
Yellow - Inactive marrow which can convert to red marrow.
Marrow cavity which has yellow marrow also has adipose tissue hence yellow
Describe the funtion of lumps in bones.
Site at which white tendons are inserted into bone
Function of smooth areas?
Points of articulation between bones
Function of rough areas
Site of ligament or tendon insertion
Function of grooves?
Wear and tear
Function of holes?
Allow blood vessels or nerves to pass