Autonomic Physiology Flashcards Preview

ZA - Science for Medicine > Autonomic Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autonomic Physiology Deck (30):
1

What does autonomic nervous system mean? what muscle type does it act on.

Means it controls the things you don't think about

Smooth and cardiac

2

What does the somatic nervous system do? What muscle type does it act on

Controls the voluntary stuff, is sensory. Controls skeletal muscle

3

Autonomic vs Somatic;

Describe how specialized each it, the type of receptor used and if if they excite/inhibit the target

Somatic - is s a specialized NMJ, has ionotropic receptors and always excites target

Autonomic - Less specialized, used metabotropic receptors and may excite or inhibit

4

Talking now only about autonomic - what does the sympathetic system do?

Fight or flight - has coordinated effects

5

What does the parasympathetic system do?

Rest and digest - has independent effects

6

What spinal cord region does the sympathetic nervous system flow from?

Thoracic and Lumbar

7

In sympathetic - is the pre-ganglionic fibres longer or shorter than the post-ganglionic fibres?

Shorter - ganglia lies close to spinal cord

8

In the sympathetic - what acts on what receptor at the ganglia

Preganglonic fibres release acetylcholine (Ach) which act on nicotinic receptors

9

In sympathetic - what do post-ganglionic fibres release and what receptor does it act on?

Noradrenaline - acts on alpha or beta receptors

10

In parasympathetic - what spinal cord region do the fibres exit from?

Cranial and Sacral

11

In parasympathetic - are the pre-ganglionic fibres longer or shorter than post?

Longer - ganglia lies closer to target

12

In parasympathetic - what acts on what receptor at the ganglia?

Ach acts on nicotinic receptors

13

In parasympathetic - what do post-ganglionic fibres release and on what receptor?

Ach again on muscarinic receptors

14

Do postganglonic fibres always follow the rules?

No - some sympathetic fibres innervate sweat glands and some release non-adrenergic non-cholinergic transmitters

15

Of the two (paraS or S) which has the hormonal component?

Sympathetic

16

How does all these fibres and stuff cause all these different effects?

Depends on what is released and what receptor it acts on

17

The eye - Sympathetic system - How does it make the eye dilate?

Activates Beta 2 receptor causing ciliary muscle to relax and eye focuses far away

Activates alpha 1 receptor, radial muscle on iris contracts and makes pupils larger

18

The eye - parasympathetic system - How does it make the eye constrict?

Activates muscarinic receptors causing ciliary muscle to contracts & eye focuses close up

Activates muscarinic receptors causing sphincter muscle to contract & makes pupil smaller

19

The heart - Sympathetic system - How does it make the heart beat faster?

Activates beta 1 receptors on pacemaker cells and myocytes causing increase in heart rate and strength of contraction

20

The heart - parasympathetic system - How does it make the heart beat slower?

Activates muscarinic receptors on pacemaker cells decreasing heart rate

Has little effect on myocytes therefore little effect on strength of contraction

21

The lungs - Sympathetic system - How does it make the lungs dilate?

Activates beta 2 receptors on smooth muscle of airways causing them to relax and dilate

22

The lungs - parasympathetic system - How does it make the airways constrict

Activates muscarinic receptors making smooth muscle constrict

23

Blood vessels - Sympathetic system - How does it make blood flow decrease?

Acts on alpha 1 receptors causing smooth muscle to contract and blood flow in that region decreases

24

Blood vessels - Sympathetic system - How does it make blood flow INCREASE

Acts on beta 2 receptors causing smooth muscle to relax and blood flow in that region increases

25

Why in blood flow - is it just the sympathetic system used?

Cause during fight or flight, bp needs to increase BUT blood is sent to where its needed and is taken from where its not...

26

The gut - sympathetic - how does it decrease gut motility?

Activates alpha/beta receptors on the smooth muscle of the gut decreasing motility

Acts on alpha receptors in pancreas inhibiting secretion of enzymes

27

The gut - parasympathetic - how does it increase gut motility?

Activates muscarinic receptors on smooth muscle of gut which increases motility

Acts on muscarinic receptors in pancreas increasing secretion of enzymes

28

Salivary glands - Symp - how does it dry mouth?

Activates beta receptors stimulating thick secretion rich in enzymes

29

Salivary glands - ParaSymp - how does it make mouth drool

Acts on muscarinic receptors which stimulates a profuse of water solution

30

Basically - tissues have dual innervation and effects can be complementary or antagonistic

True - I give up with these examples