Flashcards in Terminal Respiration Deck (16):
Where does the citric acid cycle occur?
What does the CAC make?
3NADH, 2CO2, 1FADH2 and 1 GTP
What happens to the NADH and FADH2?
They feed into the electron transport chain
How does NADH not formed in the mitochondrial matrix get transported to it from cytoplasm?
Glycerol phosphate shuttle
NADH passes electrons on to G-3-P which enetrs the mitochondria and passes electrons on to FAD to make FADH2.
How many steps in the chain?
Step 1 of the electron transport chain?
NADH-Q Oxioreductase enzyme- oxidises NADH and passes electrons to ubiquinone forming ubiquinol.
Also pumps protons across the intermembranous space
Step 2 of the chain?
Oxidises FADH2 and passes electrons on to Ubiquinone becoming ubiquinol
Step 3 of the chain?
Q-cytochrome c oxioreductase
Takes electrons from 1 ubiquinol molecules and passes them to 2 cytochrome c molecules.
Also pumps protons out into intramembranous space.
Step 4 of the chain?
Cytochrome c oxidase
Takes electrons from cytochrome c and passes them to oxygen
What is the other name for ubiquinol?
What does the pumping of protons do?
Sets up a proton gradient across the inner membrane of mitochondria
Why is this gradient important?
Because when protons try to follow their gradient back into the mitochondria - ATP synthase uses them to turn ADP to ATP.
What is the binding change mechanism
The mechanism by which ATPSynthase uses protons to form ATP
NADH provides more pumped protons than FADH2 - true or false?
True - FADH2 only enters in second step so less pumped protons
What does it mean if the chain is a coupled process?
ATPase and chain are coupled - if the protons could move across the membranes themselves it would be uncoupled and no ATP made. Results are energy forming heat.