Anatomy of Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

ESA 3 - Respiratory System > Anatomy of Respiratory System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy of Respiratory System Deck (189):
1

What is the bony thorax made up of?

  • The thoracic vertebrae posteriorly
  • The ribs and intercostal spaces laterally
  • The sternum and costal cartilages anteriorly 

2

What happens to the thoracic cage superiorly?

It is continuous with the neck, at the thoracic inlet

3

What happens to the thoracic cage inferiorly?

The diaphragm separates it from the abdominal cavity

4

How many ribs are there?

12

5

What do the ribs articulate with posteriorly?

The vertebral column

6

How do the ribs articulate with the vertebral column?

Via the costo-vertebral joints

7

What do the ribs articulate with anteriorly?

  • Ribs 1-7 are connected to sternum
  • Ribs 8-10 are connected to costal cartilage alone
  • Ribs 11-12 have ends free in the abdominal muscles

8

How do ribs 1-7 connect to the sternum?

Via costal cartilages

9

What are ribs 11 and 12 known as?

Floating ribs

10

What ribs are considered 'typical'?

3-9

11

What do typical ribs have?

  • Head
  • Neck
  • Tubercle
  • Shaft

12

What does the head of the rib have?

Two articular facets

13

What are articular facets at the head of the rib for?

Articulation with the body of the corresponding vertebrae, and the vertebrae above

14

What does the neck of the rib do? 

Connects the head of the rib with the body 

15

At what level does the neck of the rib connect the head and the body? 

The level of the tubercle 

16

What does the tubercle of the rib contain? 

One articular facet 

17

What is the purpose of the articular facet of the tubercle of the rib? 

For articulation with the transverse processes of the corresponding thoracic vertebrae 

18

What shape is the shaft of the rib? 

Thin, flat, curved 

19

What happens at the angle of the rib? 

The shaft twists forward to form its characteristic curve 

20

What does the shaft contain? 

A costal groove

21

Where is the costal groove located? 

Close to the lower border of the shaft of the rib 

22

What does the costal groove do? 

Protects the intercostal vessels and nerve 

23

Label this diagram of a typical rib

Q image thumb

  • A - Crest of head
  • B - Superior articular facet 
  • C - Tubercle 
  • D - Angle
  • E - Cup for costal cartilage

24

What are the typical features of most thoracic vertebrae? 

  • Independant
  • Have bodies, vertebral arches and seven processes

25

What are the 7 processes of the thoracic vertebrae for? 

Muscular and articular connections 

26

What are the characteristic features of thoracic vertebrae? 

  • Bilateral costal facets (demifacets)
  • Costal facets 
  • Spinous processes

27

Where do the demifacets of thoracic vertebrae occur? 

On the vertebral bodies, usually occuring in inferior and superior pairs 

28

What is the purpose of the vertebral body demifacets? 

Articulation with the heads of ribs 

29

Where are the costal facets of thoracic vertebrae found? 

On the transverse processes 

30

What is the purpose of the costal facets of thoracic vertebrae? 

Articulation with the tubercles of the ribs 

31

Which ribs are atypical? 

With respect to costal facets

The inferior two or three, as they do not articulate with costal facets 

32

Describe the spinous process of thoracic vertebrae? 

Long, inferiorly slanting 

33

What connects ribs with thoracic vertebae? 

Costovertebral joints 

34

What kind of joints are costovertebral? 

Synovial 

35

When does movement take place at the costovertebral joints? 

Movement of the ribs during respiration 

36

What does the costovertebral joint consist of? 

  • Joint of the rib head
  • Costotransverse joint 

37

What articulates at the joint of the rib head? 

The head of the rib articulates with the corresponding vertebrae, and the vertebrae above 

38

What articulates at the costotransverse joint? 

The articular facet of the tubercle of the rib and the transverse process of the corresponding vertebrae

39

Which ribs are atypical? 

1, 2 and 10 

40

Describe the shape of the first rib

Broadest, shortest, and most sharply curved rib

41

Describe the features of the first rib

  • Single articular facet for articulation with the T1 vertebrae
  • Two transversely directed grooves crossing its superior surface for the subclavian vessels
    • The grooves are seperated by the scalene tubercle

42

Label this diagram of the first rib

Q image thumb

  • A - Single facet on head
  • B - Tubercle
  • C - Scalene tubercle 
  • D - Grooves for...
    • di - Subclavian vein
    • dii - Subclavian artery

 

43

Describe the features of the second rib

  • Two articular facets for articulation with the bodies of T1 and T2 vertebrae
  • Rough area on its upper surface, the tuberosity for serratus anterior

44

Label this diagram of the second rib

Q image thumb

  • A - Head
  • B - Neck
  • C - Tubercle
  • D - Tuberosity for serratus anterior 
  • E - Body

45

Describe the features of the 10th-12th ribs

Single articular facet (like 1st rib) for articulation with a single vertebrae

46

Describe the features of the 11th and 12th rib? 

Short, with no neck or tubercle

47

What does each intercostal space contain? 

Regarding muscles 

3 muscles 

48

What are the 3 muscles of the intercostal spaces? 

  1. External intercostals
  2. Internal intercostals
  3. Innermost intercostals

49

When are external intercostals used? 

During breathing

Inspiration 

50

In which direction do the fibres of the external intercostal muscles run? 

Downwards and anteriorly from above rib, to the one below

51

What is the action of the external intercostal muscles? 

Elevate the ribs in a 'bucket handle' type movement, to increase anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the chest 

52

What are the external intercostal muscles responsible for during quiet respiration? 

30% of chest expansion

53

When are the internal intercostal muscles used? 

During breathing

During forced expiration 

54

In which direction do the fibres of the internal intercostal muscles run? 

Downwards and posteriorly, from above rib to the one below 

55

What is the action of the internal intercostal muscles? 

Pulls rib down from the position of chest expansion

56

When are the innermost intercostals used? 

During forced expiration 

57

What are the innermost intercostal muscles similar to? 

Internal intercostals, but less well developed 

58

What is the nerve supply of the intercostal muscles? 

Intercostal nerves 

59

Label this diagram

Q image thumb

  • A - Anterior ramus (intercostal nerve)
  • B - Muscular branch
  • C - Internal intercostal muscle 
  • D - External intercostal muscle
  • E - Internal intercostal muscle
  • F - Lateral cutaneous branch
  • G - Innermost intercostal muscle
  • H - Transversus thoracis muscle
  • I - External intercostal membrane
  • J - Posterior ramus
  • K - Sympathetic trunk 
  • L - Sternum

60

What is the main muscle of inspiration? 

The diaphragm 

61

What is the result of contraction of the diaphragm? 

Descent 

62

What does the diaphragm contraction account for during quiet respiration? 

70% of chest expansion 

63

Where are the openings in the diaphragm?

  • T8 - Vena Cava
  • T10 - Oesophagus
  • T12 - Aorta (Aortic hiatus)

64

What is the diaphragm made up of?

  1. Vertebral part
  2. Costal part
  3. Sternal part

65

What does the vertebral part of the diaphragm arise form? 

The crura and the Arcuate ligaments 

66

What does the costal part of the diaphragm arise from?

The inner aspects of the 7-12 costal cartilages 

67

What does the sternal part of the diaphragm arise from? 

The deep surface of the xiphisternum

68

What is the nervous supply of the diaphragm? 

From the phrenic nerve, C3, 4, 5. 

 

Remember, C3, 4, 5, keeps you alive

69

What is the motor function of the phrenic nerve? 

Supplies the diaphragm 

70

What is the sensory function of the phrenic nerve? 

Supplies both sides of the diaphragm, and the mediastinal/diaphragmatic part of the parietal pleura

71

What lies in the intercostal groove of the rib? 

The intercostal vein, artery and nerve 

 

In that order- remember VAN

72

Where do the intercostal vein, artery, and vein? 

Which part of the rib

Along the lower border 

73

What is the clinical importance of the intercostal vein, artery and nerve running along the lower border of the rib? 

Important to remember when carrying out pleural aspiration or insertion of a chest drain, when the needle should be inserted at the upper border of the rib to avoid injury

74

Label this diagram 

Q image thumb

  • A - Subcostal muscle 
  • B - Posterior intercostal vein and artery
  • C - External intercostal muscle 
  • D - Internal intercostal muscle
  • E - Innermost intercostal muscle
  • F - Intercostal nerve
  • G - Collateral nerve and vessels
  • H - Costal groove

75

How many intercostal nerves are there? 

12

76

Where do the intercostal nerves originate from? 

The anterior rami of the thoracic spinal nerves T1 - T12

77

What do the intercostal nerves supply? 

The intercostal muscles in the corresponding space, the parietal pleura, and the overlying skin 

78

What does each intercostal space contain? 

Regarding arteries 

An anterior intercostal artery (except the last two)

79

What do the anterior intercostal arteries anastomose with? 

A posterior intercostal artery 

80

What do the intercostal arteries supply? 

The intercostal muscles, parietal pleura, and overlying skin 

81

How do the anterior intercostal arteries arise? 

Brachiocephalic/aortic arch → Subclavian → Internal thoracic/musculophrenic → anterior intercostal 

82

What do the posterior intercostal arteries arise from? 

  • 1st- 2nd spaces; Brachiocephalic/aortic arch → Subclavian → Costocervical trunk → Superior intercostal → Posterior intercostal 
  • Other spaces; Thoracic aorta → Posterior intercostal

83

What does each intercostal space contain? 

Regarding nerves 

Two anterior and one posterior vein accompanying the arteries 

84

How do the anterior intercostal veins drain? 

Via the Internal Thoracic Vein, into the right subclavian vein 

85

How do most posterior intercostal veins drain? 

Via the Azygous vein on the right, and the Hemiazygous on the left, into the superior vena cava 

86

Label the veins on this diagram

Q image thumb

  • A - Right internal jugular 
  • B - Left brachiocephalic
  • C - Right subclavian
  • D - Right brachiocephalic 
  • E - Right superior intercostal 
  • F - Superior vena cava
  • G - Left superior intercostal 
  • H - Azygous
  • I - Posterior intercostal
  • J - Accessory hemiazygous
  • K - Anterior intercostal 
  • L - Hemiazygous 
  • M - Internal thoracic
  • N - Subcostal 
  • O - Right renal
  • P - Inferior vena cava

87

What is the pleura? 

A serous membrane

88

What does the pleura consist of? 

A single layer of mesothelial cells, with a thin layer of underlying connective tissue 

89

What does the parietal plerua line? 

The inside of each hemithorax

90

What does the hemithorac consist of? 

The bony thoracic cage, diaphragm, and mediastinal surface

91

What does the perietal pleura become continuous with?

The visceral pleura

92

Where does the parietal pleura become continuous with the visceral plerua? 

At the hilum of the lung

93

What does the visceral pleura line? 

The outside of the lung

94

Where does the visceral pleura extend? 

Between the lobes of the lung, into the depth of the oblique and horizontal fissures 

95

What is the blood supply of the pleura? 

Via the intercostal and internal thoracic arteries and veins 

96

What is the innervation of the perietal pleura? 

Both somatic (Intercostal and Phrenic nerves) and autonomic

97

What is innervation of the visceral pleura? 

Autonomic 

No somatic innervation

98

What is the pleural cavity (or space)?

A potential space between the two layers of pleura that are continuous at the hilum 

99

What are both layers of pleura covered with? 

A common film of fluid 

100

What is the fluid covering the layers of pleura produced from? 

The parietal surface 

101

What is the fluid covering the layers of pleura absorbed by? 

The parietal lymphatic vessels

102

What does the pleural fluid allow? 

The two layers to slide on one another, thus in health the pleura allows movement of the lung against the chest wall while breathing

103

What does the surface tension of the pleural fluid provide? 

The cohesion that keeps the lung surface in contact with the thoracic wall 

104

What is the result of the surface tension of the pleural fluid keeping the lung surface in contact with the thoracic wall? 

When the thorax expands in inspiration, the lung expands along with it and fills with air 

105

Do the lungs occupy all the available space in the pleural cavity? 

No, even in deep inspiration 

106

Label this diagram

Q image thumb

  • A - Pleural cavity
  • B - Collapsed lung
  • C - Visceral pleura
  • D - Perietal pleura
  • E - Thoracic wall lined with endothoracic fascia
  • F - Phrenicopleural fascia (part of endothoracic fascia
  • G - Mediastinum (contains heart)
  • H - Diaphragm
  • J - Visceral pleura
  • K - Parts of parietal pleura
    • ki - Diaphragmatic part
    • kii - Costal part
    • kiii - Medistinal part
    • kiv - Cervical pleura
  • L - Suprapleural membrane
  • M - Hilum of lung (site of entry of root of lung)

 

  • Orange - Visceral pleura
  • Purple - Perietal pleura
  • Blue - Costal pleura
  • Green - Diaphragmatic pleura
  • Red - Mediastinal pleura
  • Yellow - Cervical pleura

 

  • Solid - Fascial membranes (Suprapleural and mediastinal fascia, fibrous pericardium)
  • Dotted - Endothoracic fascia

107

What are the lines of pleural reflection? 

The relatively abrupt lines along which the perietal pleura changes direction (reflects) as it passes from one wall of the pleural cavity to another 

108

How many lines of pleural reflection are there? 

3 on each side 

109

Name the lines of pleural reflection

  1. Sternal 
  2. Costal 
  3. Diaphragmatic 

110

Label this diagram

Q image thumb

  • A - Common carotid artery
  • B - Internal jugular artery 
  • C - Subclavian artery
  • D - Subclavian vein 
  • E - 1st rib
  • F - 4th rib
  • G - Horizontal fissure
  • H - Right lung (covered with visceral pleura)
  • I - 6th rib
  • J - Oblique fissure
  • K - Right vertebral line of pleural reflection
  • L - Costal attachment of diaphragm 
  • M - 10th rib 
  • N - Vertebral attachment of diaphragm
  • O - Vertebrae (T12)
  • P - Left costal line of pleural reflection
  • Q - Lingula (of superior lobe)
  • R - Apex of heart
  • S - Bare area of pericardium
  • T- Oblique fissure 
  • U - Cardiac notch of left lung 
  • V - Left lung (covered in visceral pleura) 
  • W - Right and left sternal lines of pleural reflextion
  • X - Apex of left lung covered by cervical pleura (pleural cupula)

 

  • Red - Lines of (parietal) pleural reflection 
  • Yellow - Outline of heart (pericardium)

111

What does each lung have? 

  • An apex
  •  A base
  • Lobes
  • Three surfaces
  • Three borders

112

Where does the apex of each lung extend? 

Above the level of the 1st rib into the neck

113

What is the base of the lung?

A concave, inferior surface 

114

Where is the base of the lung? 

Resting on the diaphragm

115

How many lobes does the lung have? 

  • Left has two 
  • Right has three

116

What are the lobes of the lungs created by? 

One (left) or two (right) fissures 

117

What are the surfaces of the lungs?

  1. Costal 
  2. Mediastinal 
  3. Diaphragmatic

118

What are the borders of the lungs?

  • Anterior
  • Inferior 
  • Posterior

119

What divides the right lung into it's three lobes? 

A right oblique and horzontal fissure

120

What divides the left lung into its two lobes?

A single left oblique fissure 

121

What are the lobes of the right lung named? 

  1. Superior
  2. Middle
  3. Inferior

122

What are the lobes of the left lung named? 

  1. Superior
  2. Inferior

123

What is the hilum of the lung? 

A wedge-shaped area on the mediastinal surface of each lung

124

What is the function of the hilum of the lung? 

It is a passageway through which structures forming the roots of the lung enter or exit 

125

What do the roots of the lung consist of? 

  • Bronchi
  • Pulmonary arteries
  • Superior and inferior pulmonary veins 
  • Pulmonary plexus of nerves and lymphatics 

126

Label this diagram

Q image thumb

  • A - Horizontal fissure 
  • B - Superior lobe
  • C - Middle lobe
  • D - Inferior lobe
  • E - Oblique fissure 
  • F - Lingula 
  • G - Inferior lobe
  • H - Cardiac notch
  • I - Superior lobe
  • J - Oblique fissure

127

Where does the trachea begin? 

At the lower border of the cricoid cartilage in the neck

128

How does the trachea terminate? 

By dividing into the right and left main bronchi at the level of sternal angle

129

What holds the trachea open? 

By C-shaped cartilage rings, supported posteriorly by the trachealis muscle

130

What is the trachea lined with?

Pseudostratified ciliated epithelia 

131

What is the carina? 

The angle between the right and left main bronchi

132

How does the right main bronchus differ from the left? 

It is shorter, wider and more vertical 

133

What is the consequence of the differences between left and right bronchi? 

Any inspired objects are more likely to fall into the right main bronchus 

134

How long is the right main bronchus? 

2.5cm

135

What happens to the right main bronchus before reaching the hilum of the lung? 

It gives off its upper lobar branch

136

How long is the left main bronchus? 

5cm

137

Where does the left main bronchus pass? 

Below the arch of the aorta, anterior to the descending aorta and oesophagus 

138

What do the left and right main bronchi divide into? 

Lobar bronchi, one for each lobe

139

What do the lobar bronchi divide into? 

Segmental bronchi

140

What do the segmental bronchi branch into? 

Sub-segmental bronchi 

141

What do the sub-segmental bronchi divide into? 

Bronchioles

142

What do the bronchioles divide into? 

Terminal bronchioles

143

What do the terminal bronchioles divide into? 

Alveolar ducts 

144

What do the alveolar ducts divide into? 

Alveoli

145

What blood vessels service the lung? 

Each lung has a pulmonary artery supplying blood to it, and two pulmonary veins draining blood from it

146

What do the pulmonary arteries arise from? 

The pulmonary trunk

147

Where do the pulmonary arteries arise from the pulmonary trunk? 

At the level of the sternal angle

148

What do the pulmonary arteries carry? 

Low-oxygen blood to the lungs

149

What is the purpose of the pulmonary arteries carrying low-oxygen blood to the lungs? 

For oxygenation 

150

What course do the pulmonary arteries take? 

They become part of the root of each lung before splitting into lobar arteries, and subsequently segmental arteries

151

How are the arterie and bronchi related in each lung? 

They are paired, branching simulataneously and running parallel courses

152

Name the pulmonary veins

  • Superior
  • Inferior

153

What do the pulmonary veins do? 

Carry oxygen-rich blood back to the heart

154

Where is the middle lobe vein found?

In the right lung

155

What is the middle lobe vein a tributary of? 

The right superior pulmonary vein

156

How are the pulmonary veins related to the pulmonary arteries and bronchi?

They are not- they are independant 

157

What do the bronchial arteries supply blood too? 

  • The structures making up the root of the lungs
  • Suppoting tissues of lungs
  • Visceral pleura

158

Where do the bronchial arteries pass? 

Typically, along the posterior aspects of the main bronchi

159

How many left bronchial arteries are there?

2

160

Where do the left bronchial arteries arise from? 

Directly from the thoracic artery

161

How many right bronchial arteries are there?

1

162

Where does the right bronchial artery arise from?

The 3rd intercostal artery, arising from the thoracic aorta

163

What are the groups of the bronchial veins? 

  • Superficial 
  • Deep

164

What do the superficial group of the bronchial veins do? 

Drain visceral pleura and the bronchi in the hilar region to the Azygous vein on the right, and the accessory Hemiazygous on the left 

165

What do the deep group of the bronchial veins do? 

Drain the rest of the bronchi (deep in the lung, not in the hilar region) into the main pulmonary vein, or directly into the left atrium 

166

How is most of the blood supplied by the bronchial arteries returned? 

Via the pulmonary veins, rather than the bronchial ones

167

Label this diagram

Q image thumb

  • A - Right superior posterior intercostal artery
  • B - Run on posterior aspect of main bronchi
  • C - Arch of aorta
  • D - Left superior intercostal artery
  • E - Bronchial arteries
  • F - Esophageal artery
  • G - Thoracic aorta

168

What is the mediastinum?

The central compartment of the thoracic cavity

169

What covers the mediastinum on each side? 

The mediastinal pleura

170

What does the mediastinum contain? 

All of the thoracic visceea and structures, except the lungs

171

What is true of the mediastinum in living people? 

It is highly mobile 

172

Why is the mediastinum highly mobile in living people? 

As it consists primarily of hollow, visceral structures, united only by loose connective tissue, often infiltrated by fat 

173

Where does the mediastinum extend? 

  • From the superior thoracic aperture to the diaphragm
  • From the sternum and costal cartilages anteriorly to the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae posteriorly 

174

What is the mediastinum divided into? 

Superior and inferior parts 

175

Label this diagram

Q image thumb

  • A - Cervical pleura 
  • B - Apex of lung 
  • C - Manubrium 
  • D - Sternal angle
  • E - Sternum (body)
  • F - Xiphoid process
  • G - Superior mediastinum 
  • H - Inferior mediastinum 
  • I - Superior thoracic aperture 
  • J - Superior mediastinum 
  • K - Sternum
    • ki - Manubrium 
    • kii - Angle 
    • kiii - Body 
  • L - Inferior mediastinum 
    • li - Anterior mediastinum 
    • lii - Middle mediastinum 
    • liii - Posterior mediastinum 
  • M - Xiphoid process
  • N - Diaphragm 
  • O - Transverse thoracic plane

176

Where does the superior mediastinum extend? 

Inferiorly from the superior thoracic aperture to the transverse thoracic plane 

177

What is the transverse thoracic plane? 

A horizontal plane 

178

What does the transverse thoracic plane include anteriorly?

The sternal angle 

179

Where does the transverse thoracic plane pass posteriorly? 

Approximately through the junction of the T4 and T5, through the intervertebral disk

180

Where does the inferior mediastinum extend? 

Inferiorly from the transverse thoracic plane to the diaphragm 

181

What further subdivides the inferior mediastinum? 

The pericardium 

182

What is the inferior mediastinum further subdivided into? 

  • Anterior
  • Middle
  • Posterior

183

What does the middle inferior mediastinum contain? 

The heart, and roots of its great vessels

184

How can some structures lie in more than one mediastinal compartment? 

They pass vertically through the mediastinum, for example the oesophagus 

185

How much of the cardiac output must the pulmonary circulation accept? 

All of it 

186

At what resistance does the pulmonary circulation operate? 

Low 

187

What allows the pulmonary circulation to work at low resistance? 

  • Short, wide vessels 
  • Lots of capillaries connected in parallel 
  • Arterioles with relatively little smooth muscle

188

What is the result of the low resistance of the pulmonary circulation? 

It operates at a lower pressure 

189