Asthma Flashcards Preview

ESA 3 - Respiratory System > Asthma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Asthma Deck (56):
1

What is asthma? 

A chronic disorder characterised by airway wall inflammation and re-modelling 

2

What kind of pulmonary disorder is asthma? 

Reversible airflow obstruction 

 

3

What happens to airways in asthma? 

  • Thickened smooth muscle 
  • Thickened basement membranes 

 

4

What is the pathological process in asthma? 

Triggers cause airway smooth muscle to contract 

5

What is the result of airway smooth muscle contraction in asthma? 

  • Reduced airway radius 
  • Increased resistance
  • Reduced airflow

 

6

Describe the prevalance of asthma 

  • Increasing in prevalence 
  • More common in developed world 
  • Increasing in populations who move from developing to developed countries 

 

7

How many people in the UK currently recieve treatment for asthma? 

5.4 million

  • 1.1 million children
  • 4.3 million adults 

 

8

What are the potential causes of asthma? 

  • Genetic risk 
  • Sensitisation to airborne allergens 
  • Hygeine hypothesis 

 

9

What airborne allergens are assoicated with asthma? 

  • House Dust Mite 
  • Pollens
  • Air pollution 
  • Tobacco smoke (Pre/post-natal exposure, active)

 

10

What kind of diagnosis is asthma? 

Clinical

11

Why is asthma a clinical diagnosis? 

There is no standard investigation of the type, severity, or frequency of symptoms, not of the findings on investigation

12

What is asthma defined as? 

More than one of the symptoms of; 

  • Wheeze
  • Cough
  • Breathlessness
  • Chest tightness 
  • Variable airflow obstruction 

 

13

Of what nature is the wheeze in asthma?

  • High pitched, expiratory sound 
  • Polyphonic

14

What is meant by polyphonic wheeze? 

The wheeze is of variable intesity and tone 

15

Where does the wheeze originate in asthma? 

In the airways which have been narrowed be compression or obstruction 

16

Of what nature is the cough in asthma? 

  • Often worse at night 
  • Exercise induced 
  • Dry 

 

17

What are the potential consequences of an asthmatic cough being worse an night? 

  • Lack of sleep
  • Poor performance at school

 

18

What are the potential consequences of an asthmatic cough being exercise induced?

Decreased participation in activities 

19

What does an asthma examination consist of? 

  • Inspection 
  • Percussion
  • Auscultation 

 

20

What should be inspected when examining for asthma? 

  • Chest 
  • General health
  • Room

 

21

What are you looking for when inspecting the chest during an asthma examination? 

  • Scars and deformities 
  • Hyper-expansion (Barrel Chest)

 

22

What are you looking for when inspecting general health during an asthma examination?

  • Eczema
  • Hay-fever
  • Lethargy
  • Can they speak? 

 

23

What are you looking for on inspection of the room during an asthma examination? 

  • Medications 
  • Charts 

 

24

What sign on percussion is indicative of asthma? 

Hyper-resonance 

25

What sign on auscultation is indicative of asthma? 

Polyphonic wheeze 

26

What tests are used to assess the condition of a patient suspected with asthma? 

  • Spirometry - Flow volume loop
  • Allergy testing
  • Chest X-rays

 

27

What will be shown on a flow volume loop with a patient with asthma? 

  • Low PEFR
  • Low FEV1/FVC ratio 
  • >12% increase in FEVfollowing salbutamol 

 

28

Draw a flow volume loop illustrating; 

  • A normal person
  • An asthmatic 
  • An asthmatic with salbutamol

A image thumb
29

How are allergen tests for asthma carried out? 

Skin prick to aero-allergens, e.g. cat, dog, HDM, then assess blood IgE levels 

30

Why are chest x-rays performed in patients suspected to have asthma? 

To exclude other diseases, inhalation of foreign body, or a pneumothorax

31

What pathophysiological changes underlie the asthmatic condition 

  • Inflammation 
  • Remodelling 

 

32

What cells are responsible for the inflammation in asthma? 

  • Mast cells 
  • Eosionophils
  • Dendritic cells 
  • Lymphocytes 

 

33

What happens to mast cells in the asthmatic condition? 

They are increased in number 

34

What do mast cells do in asthma?

Release prostaglandins, histamine, etc.

35

Where are large numbers of eosionophils found in asthma?

In the bronchial wall and secretions 

36

What is the role of dendritic cells in asthma?

Have a role in the initial uptake and presentation of allergens to lymphocytes 

37

What is the role of lymphocytes in asthma?

T-helper lymphocytes (CD4) release cytokines that play a key part in the activation of mast cells 

38

What phenotype is related to asthma? 

Th2

39

Why is the Th2 phenotype related to asthma? 

Because it favours the production of antibody production by the B lymphocytes to IgE

40

What gets remodelled in asthma? 

  • Epithelium 
  • Basement membrane 
  • Smooth muscle 

 

41

Why is the epithelium remodelled in asthma? 

It gets stressed and damaged 

42

What happens to remodelled epithelium in asthma?

There is a loss of ciliated columnar cells

43

What happens in remodelling of the basement membrane in asthma? 

Deposition of collagen causes it to thicken

44

What happens in the remodelling of smooth muscle in asthma? 

Hyperplasia causing thickening of muscle 

45

Can asthma exacerbations occur spontaneously? 

Yes 

46

What are asthma exacerbations most commonly caused by? 

  • Lack of treatment adherence
  • Respiratory virus infections associated with the common cold
  • Exposure to allergen or triggering drug 

 

47

Give an example of a drug that can trigger asthma?

NSAIDs

48

What are the principles in treating asthma?

  • Education 
  • Primary prevention 
  • Pharmacological management 

 

49

What is the purpose of asthma education?

Educate patients to correctly regonise symptoms, to use their medication timely, use services appropriately, and to develop their own Personal Asthma Action Plan

50

What measures are taken in the primary prevention of asthma?

  • Stop smoking
  • Fresh air 
  • Reduce exposure to allergens/triggers
  • Weight loss

 

51

What drugs are involved in the pharmacological management of asthma?

  • ß2-adrenoagonists 
  • Anti-inflammatory agents 

 

52

What kind of drugs are ß2 adrenoagonists?

Muscarinic antagonists

53

What is the purpose of the use of ß2-adrenoagonists in asthma treatment?

Short term relief 

54

Give an example of a ß2 adrenoagonist used in asthma treatment?

Salbutamol

55

What anti-inflammatory agents are used in the treatment of asthma?

Corticosteroids

56

What is the purpose of the use of corticosteroids in the treatment of asthma?

Preventer therapies