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ESA 3 - Respiratory System > Respiratory Failure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Failure Deck (30):
1

What are the steps in the oxygen transport pathway from air to tissues? 

Air

  1. Airways 
  2. Alveolar gas 
  3. Alveolar membrane 
  4. Arterial blood 
  5. Regional arteries 
  6. Capillary blood

Tissues 

 

 

2

What are the disease processes that may affect the oxygen transport pathway? 

  • Low inspired oxygen 
  • Muscle and chest wall problems 
  • Obstructive airway disease 
  • Fibrosis 
  • Pulmonary oedema 
  • Ventilation-Perfusion matching 
  • Anaemia 
  • Shock 
  • Peripheral arterial disease 

 

3

What point in the oxygen transport pathway does low inspired oxygen affect? 

The air 

4

What may cause low inspired oxygen? 

High altitude 

5

What point in the oxygen transport pathway do muscle or chest wall problems affect? 

The airways

6

What are some potential muscle or chest wall problems? 

  • Scoliosis 
  • Kyphosis
  • Pectus Excavatum 
  • Muscular dystrophy 
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Trauma

 

7

What point in the oxygen transport pathway does obstructive airway disease affect? 

Airways 

8

Give two obstructive airway diseases? 

  • Asthma 
  • COPD

 

9

What point in the oxygen transport pathway does fibrosis affect? 

Alveolar membrane 

10

What are some potential causes of fibrosis? 

  • Silicosis 
  • Alveolitis 

 

11

What point in the oxygen transport pathway does pulmonary oedema affect? 

As oxygen leaves the alveolar membrane 

12

What are some potential causes of pulmonary oedema? 

  • Cardiogenic (left heart failure)
  • Aspiration (e.g. vomit)
  • Infection 
  • Trauma 

 

13

What point in the oxygen transport chain does ventilation-perfusion matching affect? 

Just as the oxygen enters the arterial blood

14

What are some potential causes of problems with ventilation-perfusion matching? 

  • Pulmomary emboli 
  • Pneumonia 
  • Consolidation 
  • Collapse of lobe
  • Large airway destruction 

 

15

What point in the oxygen transport pathway does anaemia affect? 

Arterial blood 

16

What are some potential causes of anaemia? 

  • Insufficient red blood cells produced in marrow
  • Deficiency of B12/iron
  • CO binding 

 

17

What point in the oxygen transport pathway does shock affect? 

As oxygen is leaving arterial blood 

18

What is shock? 

Global poor perfusion 

19

What point in the oxygen transport pathway does peripheral arterial disease affect? 

Regional arteries 

20

What are some potential causes of peripheral arterial disease? 

Local arterial insufficiency or damage to individual tissues, e.g. claudication or angina

 

21

What are the types of respiratory failure? 

  • Type 1 
  • Type 2 

 

22

What are the features of type 1 respiratory failure? 

  • pO2 of arterial blood low 
  • pCO2 normal or low 

 

23

What are the features of type 2 respiratory failure? 

  • pO2 of arterial blood low 
  • pCO2 high

 

24

What are the acute affects of respiratory failure? 

Increase in CO2 and a decrease in O

25

What is the increase in CO2 and a decrease in O2 in acute respiratory failure detected by? 

Central chemoreceptors 

26

What do the central chemoreceptors cause when they detect the increase in CO2 and a decrease in O2?

Breathlessness (some compensation) 

27

What are the chronic effects of respiratory failure? 

  • CO2 retention 
  • Right heart failure (Cor pulmonare) 
  • Severely disabling 

 

28

What is the result of COretention in chronic respiratory failure? 

  • Cerebrospinal fluid acidity corrected by choroid plexus
  • Initial acidosis corrected by kidney 
  • Reducation of respiratory drive
  • Persisting hypoxia

 

29

What causes right heart failure in chronic respiatory failure? 

It is the effect of hypoxia on pulmonary arteries resulting in pulmonary hypertension 

30

How is respiratory failure managed? 

  • Oxygen therapy
  • Removal of secretions 
  • Assisted ventilation 
  • Treat acute exacerbations