Anatomy of the Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy of the Digestive System Deck (118):
1

Define alimentary canal

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Alimentary Canal

  1. The hollow tube extending from mouth to anus
    1. Technically outside the body
    2. Covered with mucous membrane
  2. Also called the gastrointestinal tract

2

The alimentary canal includes what organs? 

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Alimentary Canal includes: 

  • Mouth 
  • Pharynx
  • Esophagus
  • Stomach 
  • Small intestine
  • Large intestine
  • Rectum 
  • Anus 

3

Define absorbption in the digestive system

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Absorption

 The process in which the digested end products can pass through the epithelial cells lining the tract into the blood for distribution to the body cells 

4

Define digestion 

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Digestion

Process by which foods are broken down into simpler forms so that nutrients can be delivered to all areas in the body

5

What are the two types of digestion? 

 

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Two Types of Digestion: 

  1. Physical/ mechanical 
  2. Chemical

6

Define physical/mechanical digestion

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Physical/Mechanical  Digestion: 

  1. Ingestion
    1. By taking in the substance through the mouth into the gastrointestinal tract, such as through eating or drinking
  2. Chewing  
    1. Using your teeth to break the food into smaller pieces    
  3. Muscular actions     
    1. Churning 

7

Define Chemical Digestion

Chemical Digestion: 

  • Enzyme breakdown
    • Hydrolysis 
  • Absorption       
  • Excretion 

8

What are the accessory organs of the digestive system? 

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Accessory Organs of Digestive System

  • teeth
  • tongue
  • gallbladder
  • salivary glands
  • liver
  • pancreas

9

What is the difference between primary and accessory organs of the digestive system? 

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Primary Organs: An organ that helps with digestion and is part of the digestive tract

  • Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus 

Accessory Organs: An organ that helps with digestion but is not part of the digestive tract

  • teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver, and pancreas

10

What are the six primary functions of the digestive system? 

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Primary Functions of the Digestive System

  1. Ingestion
  2. Secretion
  3. Mixing and movement
  4. Digestion
  5. Absorption
  6. Excretion

11

What is the digestive system? 

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Digestive System

The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body

12

Define lumen of the alimentary canal 

Lumen 

The interior of the gastrointestinal tract

13

Identify the organ, its feature, and name

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Organ: Pancreas

Feature: Acinar cells

Name of feature: Pancreatic acini 

14

What is the pancreatic acini? 

Pancreatic acini

  • Pancreatic acinar cells produce and secrete digestive enzymes, which are secreted routed to the intestine by a branched ductal network.
  • The bulk of the mature pancreas is comprised of acinar cells

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15

Identify the organ, its feature, and name

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Organ: Pancreas

Feature: 

Name: Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) 

16

What are the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)? 

Pancreatic Islets/ Islets of Langerhans

  • Pancreatic islets contain several types of cells, including beta cells, that produce the hormone insulin.
  • Pancreatic islets, also called islets of Langerhans, are tiny clusters of cells scattered throughout the pancreas
    • Endocrine function: Islets of Langerhans

      Release of insulin and glucagon

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17

Identify the organs, its feature, and feature's name

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Organ: Pancreas

Feature: Duct

Name: Pancreatic duct

18

What is the purpose of the pancreatic duct? 

Pancreatic Duct

•The ducts leading into the duodenum

•Cuboidal or columnar

•Secrete HCO3-

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19

What is the purpose of the Islets of Langerhans? 

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Endocrine function: Islets of Langerhans

  • Release of insulin and glucagon

20

What is the purpose of the acinar cells of the pancreas? 

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Exocrine function: Acinar cells

  • Secretes pancreatic juice which breaks down all categories of foodstuff
  • Acini (clusters of secretory cells) contain zymogen granules with digestive enzymes 

21

What are the two functions of the pancreas? 

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Functions of the Pancreas

 

  1. Exocrine function: Acinar cells
    1. Secretes pancreatic juice which breaks down all categories of foodstuff
    2. Acini (clusters of secretory cells) contain zymogen granules with digestive enzymes
  2. Endocrine function: Islets of Langerhans
    1. Release of insulin and glucagon

22

Gross Anatomy of the Pancreas

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Common bile duct

23

Gross Anatomy of the Pancreas

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Head of pancreas

24

Gross Anatomy of the Pancreas

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Body of pancreas

25

Gross Anatomy of the Pancreas

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Tail of pancreas

26

Gross Anatomy of the Pancreas

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Accessory duct of pancreas

27

Gross Anatomy of the Pancreas

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Pancreatic duct 

28

Gross Anatomy of the Pancreas

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Gross Anatomy of the Pancreas

  1. Common bile duct
  2. Head
  3. Body
  4. Tail
  5. Accessory duct
  6. Pancreatic duct

29

Biliary Tree

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Gallbladder

30

Biliary Tree

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Right and left hepatic ducts of liver

31

Biliary Tree

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Common hepatic duct 

32

Biliary Tree

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Bile duct and sphincter

33

Biliary Tree

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Accessory pancreatic duct

34

Biliary Tree

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Pancreas

35

Biliary Tree

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Jejunum

36

Biliary Tree

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Main pancreatic duct and sphincter

37

Biliary Tree

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Major duodenal papilla

38

Biliary Tree

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Hepatopancreatic ampulla and sphincter

39

Biliary Tree

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Duodenum

40

Biliary Tree

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Cystic duct

41

Biliary Tree

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Mucosa with folds

42

Name of this structure

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Biliary Tree

43

Label the structure: 

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Biliary Tree

  1. Gallbladder
  2. Right and left hepatic ducts of liver
  3. Common hepatic duct
  4. Bile duct and sphincter
  5. Accessory pancreatic duct
  6. Pancreas
  7. Jejunum
  8. Main pancreatic duct and sphincter
  9. Major duodenal papilla
  10. Hepatopancreatic ampulla and sphincter
  11. Duodenum
  12. Cystic duct
  13. Mucosa with folds

44

What is the function of 1? 

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Gallbladder

  • Function: stores the bile salts that the liver makes 
    • Secretes as an emulsifier 

45

Name the structure and function

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Liver

  • Function: to make bile salts

46

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Coronary ligament 

47

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Right lobe

48

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Left lobe 

49

Name structure and function

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Gallbladder

Function: to store and excrete bile salts made from the liver 

50

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Round ligament (ligamentum teres) 

51

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Falciform ligament 

52

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Caudate lobe

53

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Left lobe

54

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Hepatic portal vein 

55

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Hepatic artery 

56

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Quadrate lobe

57

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Common bile duct

58

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Gallbladder

59

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Hilus (porta hepatis) 

60

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Right lobe

61

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Inferior vena cava

62

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Left hepatic vein 

63

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Liver 

  1. Coronary ligament
  2. Right lobe
  3. Left lobe
  4. Gallbladder
  5. Round ligament (ligamentum teres)
  6. Falciform ligament
  7. Left lobe
  8. Hepatic portal vein
  9. Hepatic artery
  10. Quadrate lobe
  11. Common bile duct
  12. Gallbladder
  13. Hilus (porta hepatis) 
  14. Right lobe
  15. Inferior vena cava
  16. Left hepatic vein
  17. Caudate lobe 

64

What is the largest gland in the body?

Liver

65

How many lobes does the liver have and what are their names?

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Liver has 4 superfical lobes

  1. Right lobe (2 & 14)
  2. Left lobe (3 & 7)
  3. Caudate (17) 
  4. Quadrate  (10) 

66

What is the falciform ligament of the liver? 

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Falciform ligament (6)

  • Seperates the right and left lobes anteriorly
  • Suspends the liver from the diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall 

67

What is hepatitis (definition only) 

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Hepatitis 

  • Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver.
  • The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis (scarring), cirrhosis or liver cancer.
  • Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis in the world but other infections, toxic substances (e.g. alcohol, certain drugs), and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis.

68

What is cirrhosis of the liver? 

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Cirrhosis 

  • Hardening of the liver due to scar tissue resulting in loss of liver function 

69

Liver Model

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Liver Model 

  1. ​Left lobe
  2. Hepatic artery
  3. Quadrate lobe
  4. Gallbladder
  5. Cystic duct
  6. Right lobe
  7. Portal vein
  8. Inferior vena cava
  9. Caudate lobe

70

What is the function of this structure? 

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Salivary Glands

  • Function: To produce saliva and the digestive enzyme amylase (breaks down starch) 

71

Name the structure and its secretions 

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Parotid

  • Largest of the salivary glands
  • Primarily serous with salivary amylase

72

Name the structure and its secretions 

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Sublingual

  • "Below the tongue"
  • Smallest of the salivary glands
  • Secretes mucous fluids

73

Name the structure and its secretions 

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Submandibular 

  • Located on the floor of the mouth
  • Secretes both serous and mucous fluids

74

Name the structure 

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Parotid Duct 

  • A duct and the route that saliva takes from the major salivary gland, the parotid gland into the mouth
  • Histology: 
    • Tube with cubiodal or columnar ET 

75

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Salivary Glands

  1. Parotid gland
    1. Amylase
  2. Submandibular gland
    1. Serous and mucous fluids
  3. Sublingual gland
    1. Mucous fluid
  4. Paroid duct
  5. Accessory parotid gland 

76

Name of organ and structure

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Organ: salivary gland (submandibular)

Structure: duct 

77

Name of organ and structure

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Organ: Salivary gland (submandibular)

  • Structure: Serous acini
    • *Acini = berry like 
    • Makes serous fluid 

78

Name of organ and structure

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Organ: Salivary Gland

  • Structure: mucus acini 
    • *Acini = berry like
    • "Mucous cells" 
    • Lots of white space = lots of mucous 

79

Name of organ and structure

3

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Organ: Salivary gland

  • Structure: serous acini demilune 
    • Demilunes = crescent moon
    • Dark purle of acini 
    • "Watery moon" 

80

Name the organ and its structures

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Salivary gland (submandibular)

  1. Duct
  2. Serous acini
  3. Serous acini demilune
  4. Mucus acini 

81

Name the organ and its structures

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Salivary Gland

  1. Serous acini demilune
  2. Mucus acini
  3. Serous acini 

82

Name the organ and its structures

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Salivary glands

  1. Serous acini demilune 

83

Name the organ and its structures

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Salivary Glands

  1. Duct
  2. Serous acini
  3. Mucus acini 

84

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Aorta

85

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Hepatic portal vein 

86

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Ileocecal valve is in here 

87

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Ileum 

88

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(Vermiform) Appendix 

89

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Inferior Mesenteric Artery 

90

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Superior Mesentric Artery 

91

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Teniae coli (3) 

92

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Epiploic appendages

  • Fat deposits outside of the colon 

93

Name the organ and its structures

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Large Intestine

  1. Hepatic portal vein
  2. Teniae coli (3)
  3. Ileocecal valve (is located there)
  4. Cecum
  5. (Vermiform) Appendix 
  6. Iluem (small intestine)
  7. Inferior mesentric artery
  8. Epiploic appendages
  9. Superior mesentic artery
  10. Aorta

94

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Cecum 

  • Has 4-5 haustra (bumps) 

95

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Transverse Colon 

96

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Descending Colon 

 

97

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Ascending Colon 

98

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Teniae coli (3) 

  • Smooth muscle that helps in peristalsis 

99

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Rectum 

100

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Anal Canal 

101

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Sigmoid Colon 

  • Left hand side of body
  • Gas and dry fecal matter

102

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Splenic Flexure

  • Left side of body 
    • "Spleen side" 

103

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Hepatic Flexure

  • Right hand side of body
    • "Liver side" 

104

Name the organd and its structures

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Large Intestine 

  1. Hepatic flexure
  2. Teniae coli (3)
  3. Ascending colon
  4. Rectum
  5. Anal canal
  6. Sigmoid colon
  7. Descending colon
  8. Splenic flexure
  9. Transverse colon 

105

What are the three types of papillae? 

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Types of Papillae

  1. Fungiform

  2. Filiform

  3. Vallate

106

Where are the taste buds in reference to the papillae? 

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Taste buds

  • Along the sides of fungiform and vallate papillae

107

What is mastication? 

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Mastication= chewing 

  • Chewing is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth.
    • It is the first step of digestion, and it increases the surface area of foods to allow more efficient break down by enzymes.
    • During the mastication process, the food is positioned by the cheek and tongue between the teeth for grinding

108

What are the two muscles of mastication? 

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Muscles of Mastication 

  1. Masseter
  2. Temporalis

109

Name the organ and its structures 

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Pancreas

  1. Connective tissue
  2. Islet of Landerhans
  3. Pancreatic acinus 

110

Name the organ, the structure, and function  

2

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  • Organ: Pancreas
  • Structure: Islet of Langerhans
  • Function: (Endocrine) Release of insulin and glucagon

111

Name the organ, the structure, and function  

3

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  • Organ: Pancreas
  • Structure: Pancreatic acinus
    • "Acinar cells"
  • Function: (Exocrine) 
    • Secretes pancreatic juice which breaks down all categories of foodstuff
    • Acini (clusters of secretory cells) contain zymogen granules with digestive enzymes 

112

What are the six regions of the colon

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Regions of the colon: 

  1. Ascending colon
  2. Hepatic flexure
  3. Transverse colon
  4. Splenic flexure
  5. Descending colon
  6. Sigmoid colon

 

113

What region of the colon joins the rectum? 

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Sigmoid colon 

114

What region of the large intestine opens to the exterior of the anus? 

 

 

 

*Hint: The last segment of the large intestine 

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Anal canal 

115

The large intestine is divided into what five parts? 

 

 

*Hint: Not regions 

The large intestine is subdivided into the: 

  1. Cecum
  2. Appendix
  3. Colon
    1. Ascending colon

    2. Hepatic flexure

    3. Transverse colon

    4. Splenic flexure

    5. Descending colon

    6. Sigmoid colon

  4. Rectum
  5. Anal canal

116

What part of the large intestine contains the following? 

  1. Lies below the ileocecal valve in the right iliac fossa
  2. Contains a wormlike vermiform appendix

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Cecum

"Saclike" 

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117

Name the organ, and its structures 

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Organ: Large Intestine

  1. Haustra
    1. "Bumps" 
  2. Teniae coli (3)
  3. Ileum (small intestine) 
  4. Cecum
  5. Appendix 
    1. "Verniform" 

118