Survey of Embryonic Development Flashcards Preview

BIO 233 > Survey of Embryonic Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Survey of Embryonic Development Deck (47):
1

Name the structures

Q image thumb

  1. Fertilization (zygote)
  2. Blastomeres 2 cells (cleavage)
  3. Bastomeres 4 cells (cleavage)
  4. Blastomeres 8 cells (cleavage) 
  5. Morula (blastomeres 32 cells) "solid ball"
  6. Blastula (hollow ball) 
  7. Blastocyst/ gastrula 
  8. Implanted blastocyst

 

2

What is happening in 1?

Q image thumb

Fertilization: sperm and ovum

Time zero

3

What is the term for 2 and what is its time duration?

Q image thumb

Embryo

Weeks 3-9

4

What is the term for 3? How long does this stage last?

Q image thumb

Fetus.

From 9 weeks to birth

5

What is happening in 4? What is the time?

Q image thumb

Implantation into uterine wall

Week 1

6

Label 

Q image thumb

  1. Oocyte
  2. Zygote (fertilized egg)
  3. 4 cell stage
  4. Morula
  5. Blastocyst
  6. Implanting blastocyst

7

Label

Q image thumb

  1. Endometrium
  2. Uterine endometrial epithelium
  3. Inner cell mass
  4. Trophoblast (outside cells)
  5. Blastocyst cavity
  6. Lumen of uterus 

8

Label

Q image thumb

  1. Endometrial stoma with blood vessels and glands
  2. Syncytiotrophoblast ("legs")
  3. Cytotrophoblast
  4. Inner cell mass (future embryo)
  5. Trophoblast (outside of blastocyste)
  6. Lumen of uterus 

9

Label 

Q image thumb

  1. Inner cell mass = embryoblast
  2. Trophoblast = outside cells
  3. Blastocyst cavity
  4. Blastocyst

10

Label

Q image thumb

  1. Amnion
  2. Allantois
  3. Chorion
  4. Yolk sac
  5. Yolk (nutrient)
  6. Albumen
  7. Shell
  8. Amniotic cavity with amniotic fluid
  9. Embryo

11

Label

Q image thumb

  1. Decidau basalis (bottom of mom's uterus- where belly button forms)
  2. Maternal blood
  3. Chorionic villus
  4. Umbilical blood vessels in umbilical cord
  5. Amnion
  6. Amniotic cavity
  7. Yolk sac
  8. Chorion
  9. Decidua capsularis (cover of embryo) 

12

What is the purpose of the amnion? 

Encases and protects embryo against mechanical and temperature, trauma

13

What is the purpose of the yolk sac?

•Yolk sac: transfers nutrients to embryo. Replaced by placenta in humans.

14

What is the purpose of the allantois? 

•Allantois: repository of embryo wastes. Replaced by placenta in humans.

15

What are the three germal layers?

  1. •Ectoderm: nervous tissues, epidermis and melanocytes.
  2. •Mesoderm: bones, muscles, mesenchyme, reproductive system, urinary system.
  3. •Endoderm: digestive system, respiratory system, endocrine system.

16

What does the ectoderm contribute to? 

•Ectoderm: nervous tissues, epidermis and melanocytes.

17

What does the mesoderm contribute to? 

•Mesoderm: bones, muscles, mesenchyme, reproductive system, urinary system.

18

What does the endoderm contribute to? 

Endoderm: digestive system, respiratory system, endocrine system

19

What are the three basic activites that ensure the formation of a viable offspring?

  1. Increase in cell number and growth
  2. Cellular specialization
  3. Morphogenesis 

20

Describe the process and timing of implantation in the human

The zygote becomes a bastocyte that travels down the uterine tube to the uterine lining to implant. The blastocyte will have the three layers (ecto-, meso-, and endoderm) 

Takes about a week 

21

Define the decidua basalis and its function

Decidua Basalis

  • Maternal part of the placenta.
  • Located in contact with the chorion frondosum where the fetus attached to the uterine wall.

22

General function of the human placenta

Metabolism, Transportation, Endocrine Secretion

23

Define the decidua capsularis and its function

Decidua Capsularis

  • Originates from the maternal endometrium which "plugged" the area where the blastocyst invaginated on the uterine wall.
  • In contact with the chorionic laeve which is on the abembryonic pole of the chorionic cavity.
  • Gets stretch when the fetus starts to grow and extends into uterine cavity

24

What is the function of the chorion villi of the placenta? 

Function of chorionic villi

Holds the placenta in place via the cytotrophoblastic shell, connecting the fetal part to the maternal part

"fingers of the chorion" 

25

What two structures make up the umbilical cord? 

  1. Yolk sac
  2. Allantois 

26

What is morphogenesis? 

The formation of functioning organ systems 

27

What is a zygote?

A fertilized egg

28

What is meant by fertilization?

Fertilization is the process of when the egg's and sperm's nucleu fuse to form a single nuclues, after the egg is penetrated by the sperm cell. 

29

What is a blastomere?

Blastomeres are the successively forming and dividing cells of the zygote forming a mass. 

30

What is the series of mitotic divisions, without intervening growth periods after fertilization called?

Cleavage

31

What is the result of cleavage?

Cleavage results in a multicellular embryonic body

32

What is the morula and at what stage does this occur?

The morula is a solid mass of cells during the 32-cell stage, which resembles a raspberry.

33

What is the blastula

Blastula is the hollowing out of the morulla from a solid ball to a ball of cells surrounding a central cavity. 

*The blastula is the final product of the cleavage

34

Identify the early gastrula form, which follows the bastula in the developmental sequence. 

Q image thumb

#6

Moves from a solid ball to a hollow ball

35

What is the result of gastrulation?

The result of gastrulation is turning the single layer bastula into a three layered embryo form. Each layer corresponds to a primary germ layer from which the body tissues develop.

36

What is the final product of cleavage? 

Q image thumb

#7 & 8

Blastocyst

37

Label the blastocyst

Q image thumb

  1. Trophoblast
  2. Blastocyst cavity
  3. Inner mass
  4. Hypoblast
  5. Epiblast

38

Label the implanted blastocyst

Q image thumb

6. Blastocyst cavity

7. Endoderm

8. Ectoderm

9. Lacuna

10. Cyto-tropho-blast

11. Syn-cytio-tropho-blast

12. Amnion

13. Amniotic cavity

39

Label

Q image thumb

  1. Uterus
  2. Placenta
  3. Amniotic cavity
  4. Urinary bladder
  5. Cervical canal
  6. Vaginal canal 

40

Label the placenta

Q image thumb

  1. Amnion covering of placenta
  2. Umbilical vein (1 big tube) 
  3. Umbilical arteries (2 little tubes) 

41

Label 1-6

Q image thumb

  1. Umbilical vein
  2. Umbilical arteries
  3. Chorion
  4. Decidua basalis
  5. Myometrium
  6. Maternal endometrial arteriole (spiral arteriole)

42

Label 7-13

Q image thumb

7. Maternal endometrial venule

8. Uterine artery

9. Chorionic villi

10. Intervillous space

11. Fetal blood vessels

12. Amnion

13. Wharton's jelly

43

What is the name of this tissue?

Ovary mature follicle 

44

What is the name of this tissue and its structure?

Ovary Corpus lutem 

45

Label

Q image thumb

  1. Urinary bladder
  2. Spermatic cord
  3. Testicular blood vessels
  4. Epididymis
  5. Tunica albuginea covering the testis
  6. Tunica vaginalis
  7. Scrotum
  8. Shaft of penis
  9. Glans penis
  10. Cresmaster muscle
  11. Ureter
  12. Ejaculatory duct opening
  13. Spermatic cord
  14. Ischiocavernosus muscle
  15. Prostate
  16. Seminal vesicles
  17. Ampulla of vas deferens 

46

Label

Q image thumb

  1. Head
  2. Lens placode
  3. Pharyngeal arch
  4. Upper limb
  5. Lower limb
  6. Amniotic cavity
  7. Amnion
  8. Umbilical blood vessels
  9. Yolk sac
  10. Chorionic villi

47

Label

Q image thumb

  1. Mature (pre-ovulatory) follicle
  2. Corpus lutem