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What is the function of the respiratory system? 

Function of Respiratory System 

Gas Exchange of the bloodstream 


O2 (in) 


What are the pathway organs of inhalation from start to finish? 

  1. (Start) Nose
  2. Pharynx
  3. Larynx
  4. Trachae
  5. Bronchi
  6. Lungs
  7. Alveoli ("air sacs")
  8. *Respiratory membrane
  9. (Goal) Capillaries 
    1. Contains blood


What is the name of the thin layer between the alveoli and capillaries? 

Respiratory Membrane 


What are the three characterisitics of the respiratory membrane? 

Characteristics of Respiratory Membrane

  1. Thin membrane
    1. Simple squamous ET = quick exchange
  2. Macrophages
    1. "Big eaters" = Pathogen eaters
    2. Protects membrane from pathogens (immunity)
  3. Surfactant-secreting cells 
    1. Secretes lubrication 
    2. Prevents alveoli from sticking to one another 


What are the three characterisitics of a smoker's respiratory membrane? 

Smoker's Respiratory Membrane 

  1. Smoking kills surfactant-secreting cells
    1. No lubrication 
    2. Causes alveoli to stick to one another
  2. Smoking kills macrophages = no immunity
  3. Smoking causes the thin membrane to thicken
    1. Causes it to be harder to breathe 


What are the five steps for inhalation? 


  1. Diaphragm contracts 
    1. Moves down
  2. The thoracic cavity expands 
    1. Increase in chest volume
  3. Lungs expand
    1. Increase in lung volume
  4. Pressure decreases in the lungs (alveoli) 
  5. Air moves in due to pressure gradient
    1. From high to low pressure 


What does the formula represent? 

Increase Volume = Decrease Pressure 

Increase Volume = Decrease Pressure


Air moves into the lungs due to the lungs having an increase in volume but decreased pressure 


What are the five steps for exhalation? 


  1. Diaphragm moves up and relaxes
  2. Thoracic cavity gets smaller
    1. Volume decreases
  3. Lungs get smaller
    1. Decreased volume in lungs
  4. Pressure increases in alveoli
  5. Air moves out of lungs due to pressure gradient 
    1. Moves from high to low pressure 


What does the formula represent? 

Decease Volume = Increase Pressure 

Decease Volume = Increase Pressure 


The decreased volume of the thoracic cavity and lungs causes the pressure to increase 


How do the lungs and thoracic cavity move as an unit? 

Visceral pleura 

The pleural cavity pulls the lungs to the chest muscles 



Nasal Cavity 

  • The nasal cavity is the inside of your nose.
  • It is lined with a mucous membrane that helps keep your nose moist by making mucus so you won't get nosebleeds from a dry nose.
  • There are also little hairs that help filter the air you breathe in, blocking dirt and dust from getting into your lungs.


What is pneumothorax? 

Pneumothorax = "collapsed lung" 

  • Pneumothorax is an air leak in the chest (hole) due to damage of the pleural membranes 


What causes pneumothorax? 

Causes of Pneomothorax

  • A hole in the lung due to damage to the pleural membranes
  • The pleural membrans holds the lungs to the chest walls 


Oral Cavity 

  • The first section of the mouth is known as the oral cavity, or the mouth cavity.
    • This space is bordered in the front and to the sides by the two alveolar arches, which contain the teeth



Nostril/ External Nares 

  • Is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening



  • The larynx is a tough, flexible segment of the respiratory tract connecting the pharynx to the trachea in the neck.
  • It plays a vital role in the respiratory tract by allowing air to pass through it while keeping food and drink from blocking the airway.
  • The larynx is also the body’s “voice box” as it contains the vocal folds that produce the sounds of speech and singing



  • The membrane-lined cavity behind the nose and mouth, connecting them to the esophagus.
  • Food, fluid, and air "tube" 



  • The trachea (or windpipe) is a wide, hollow tube that connects the larynx (or voice box) to the bronchi of the lungs.
  • It is an integral part of the body’s airway and has the vital function of providing air flow to and from the lungs for respiration.


Site of Carina 

  • he carina is a ridge of cartilage in the trachea that occurs between the division of the two main bronchi


Right (Main) Primary Bronchus

  • The right main bronchus (primary) is one of the air passageways into the lungs


Right Lung (3 Lobes)

  1. Superior lobe of right lung
  2. Middle lobe of right lung
    1. Wedged shaped
  3. Inferior lobe of right lung 



Left Lung (2 Lobes) 

  1. Superior lobe of left lung
  2. Inferior lobe of left lung 



  • The diaphragm is the dome-shaped sheet of muscle and tendon that serves as the main muscle of respiration and plays a vital role in the breathing process


Respiratory System 

  1. Nasel cavity 
  2. Nostril/ external nares
  3. Oral cavity
  4. Larynx
  5. Right primary bronchus
  6. Right lung
  7. Pharynx
  8. Trachea
  9. Site of carina
  10. Left lung
  11. Diaphragm 


What is the structure and its function? 

Nasal Cavity

  • Varies in size (surface area) between people
  • Heats and humidifies the air from the atmosphere 



  • The nasopharynx is located above the soft palate.
  • It communicates with the nasal cavity and provides a passageway for air during breathing
  • The eustachian tubes, which connect the pharynx with the middle ears, open through the walls of the nasopharynx



  • The oropharynx, or pharynx, is a passage that connects the back of the mouth and the nose to the esophagus.
  • This muscular tube, which is lined with mucous membranes, is a part of the respiratory and the digestive systems



  • The laryngopharynx is where both food and air pass.
  • It can be found between the hyoid bone and the larynx and esophagus, which helps guide food and air where to go. It is a part of the pharynx.
  • A smooth mucous membrane covers the side and back walls.
  • At the back of the larynx, the anterior wall of the laryngopharynx exists.


  1. Nasal cavity
  2. Nasopharynx
  3. Oropharynx
  4. Laryngopharynx 


Upper Respiratory System Structures 

  1. Sphenoidal sinus
  2. Superior meatus
  3. Middle meatus
  4. Pharyngeal tonsil
  5. Opening of pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube
  6. Nasopharynx
  7. Internal nares
  8. Uvula 


Upper Respiratory System Structures 

  1. Palatine tonsil
  2. Fauces
  3. Oropharynx
  4. Laryngopharynx
  5. Vestibular fold
  6. Vocal fold
  7. Esophagus 


Upper Respiratory System Structures 

  1. Frontal sinys
  2. Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone
  3. Superior concha
  4. Middle concha
  5. Inferior concha
  6. Vestibule
  7. Inferior meatus
  8. External nares 


Upper Respiratory System Structures 

  1. Hard palate
  2. Soft palate
  3. Tongue
  4. Lingual tonsil
  5. Epiglottis
  6. Hyoid bone
  7. Thryoid cartilage of larynx
  8. Cricoid cartilage
  9. Thryoid gland
  10. Trachea 


What is cellular respiration? 

Cellular Respiration 

  • The oxygen-using cellular processes
  • Cellular metabolism 


What is the respiratory system? 

Respiratory System 

  • System of organs that function to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbone dioxide 


What are the four distinct processes of respiration? 

Processes of Respiraton 

  1. Pulmonary ventilation
  2. External respiration
  3. Transport of respiratory gases
  4. Internal respiration 


What is pulmonary ventilation? 

Pulmonary Ventilation 

  • The tidelike movement of air into and out of the lungs so that the gases in the alveoli are continously changed and refreshed
  • Also more simply called ventilation or breathing 


What is external respiraton? 

External Respiration

  • The gas exchange between the blood and the air-filled chambers of the lungs
    • Oxygen loading/ carbon dioxoide unloading 


What is meant by the transport of respiratory gases? 

Transport of Respiratory Gases

  • The transport of respiratory gases between the lungs and tissue cells of the body is accomplished by the cardiovascular system
  • Using blood as the transport vehicle 


What is internal respiration? 

Internal Respiration

  • Exchange of gases between systemic blood and tissue cells (oxygen unloading and carbon dioxide loading) 


What are the structures of the upper respiratory system? 

Upper Respiratory System Structures

  1. External nares = nostrils
  2. Nasal cavity
  3. Pharynx
  4. Larynx


What structures make up the nasal cavity? 

Nasal Cavity Structures

  1. Vestibule
  2. Nasal septum
  3. Nasal conchae
    1. Inferior, middle, & superior
  4. Nasal meatus
    1. Inferior, middle, & superior
  5. Para-nasal sinuses
  6. Hard palate
  7. Soft palate
  8. Pharynx
    1. Nasopharynx
    2. Oropharynx 
    3. Laryngopharynx
  9. Larynx 


Define cleft palate. 

Cleft Palate

  • A congenital split in the roof of the mouth.


External Nares

  • Nostrils 



  • Most anterior part of the nasal cavity


Name of organ pierced 

Nasal Septum 

  • The bone and cartilage that divide the nasal cavity of the nose in half



Name the structure and its function 

Nasal Conchae

  • (singular is concha) 
  • Increases air turbulence. 
  • As air passes through the nasal cavity, it is also warmed, moistened, and filtered by the nasal mucosa 


What is the function of the nasal meatus? 

Inferior, Middle, & Superior Nasal Meatus 

  • A meatus is a passage or opening in the body, especially one which is open to the exterior).

  • The nasal meatuses are located beneath each of the corresponding nasal conchae.


What are the names of the para-nasal sinuses? 

Para-Nasal Sinuses

  1. Frontal sinus
  2. Sphenoid sinus
  3. Ethmoid sinus
  4. Maxillary sinus

 *These sinuses are named for the bones in which they are located 



What is the function of the para-nasal sinuses? 

Para-Nasal Sinuses

  • Function: To act as a resonance chamber in speech and their mucosae, like in the nasal cavity, warms and moistens the incoming air 


Hard Palate

  • The bony front part of the palate
  • Separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity 


Soft Palate 

  • The fleshy, flexible part toward the back of the roof of the mouth

  • Separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity 


Colored area


  • The membrane-lined cavity behind the nose and mouth, connecting them to the esophagus.
  • Food, fluid, and air tube
  • Approximately 13 cm (5 in) long 


Name this section of the pharynx 


  • The upper part of the pharynx, connecting with the nasal cavity above the soft palate
  1. Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) 
  2. Openings of auditory (pharyngo-tympanic) tubes
  3. Internal nares (posterior nasal aperture) 


Define otitis media and what part of the pharynx does it affect? 

Otitis Media

  • Inflammatory diseases of the middle ear
  • Affects the nasopharynx 


Name the region of the pharynx this structure is in and its anatomy. 


  1. Palatine tonsils
  2. Lingual tonsils
  3. Uvula
  4. Fauces: opening to oral cavity 


Name the regions of pharynx 

  1. Nasopharynx
  2. Oropharynx
  3. Laryngopharynx 


Name the nine cartilages of the larynx 

Cartilages of Lanynx 

  1. Epiglottis (elastic) 
  2. Laryngeal prominence (hyaline) 
  3. Thyroid (hyaline) 
  4. Cricoid (hyaline) 
  5. Tracheal (hyaline) 
  6. Ventricular fold (hyaline) 
    1. False vocal cords 
  7. Vocal fold (hyaline) 
    1. True vocal cords
  8. Arytenoid (hyaline) 
  9. Corniculate (hyaline) 


Name the structures of the larynx

  1. Thyro-hyoid ligament and membrane
  2. Crico-tracheal ligament
  3. Crico-thyroid ligament
  4. Hyoid bone 


What are the structures of the lower respiratory system? 

Structures of Lower Respiratory System 

  1. Trachea
  2. Carina
  3. Primary (main) bronchi 
    1. Left & right
  4. Hilus
  5. Secondary (lobar) bronchi
    1. Left & right
  6. Tertiary (segmental) bonchi
    1. Left & right
  7. Bronchioles
    1. Terminal bronchioles (left & right)
    2. Respiratory bronchioles (left & right)
  8. Respiratory tree
  9. Alveolar ducts
  10. Alveoli
  11. Respiratory membrane


What is meant by respiratory zone? 

Respiratory Zone

  • Is the site of O2 and CO2 exchange with the blood


What are the structures for the respiratory zone? 

Structures of the respiratory zone

  1. Trachea
  2. Carina
  3. Primary (main) bronchi
  4. Hilus 
  5. Secondary (lobar) bronchi
  6. Tertiary (segmental) bronchi
  7. Bronchioles
    1. Terminal bronchioles