Physiology of Reproduction: Gametogenesis and Female Cycles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology of Reproduction: Gametogenesis and Female Cycles Deck (40):
1

Define haploid complement (n) 

Haploid complement (n)

  • Having only one set of chromosomes (n), in contrast to diploid (2n) 
  • Known as a gamate (reproductive cell) 

2

Define gametogenesis

Gametogenesis

  • Is the process of gamate formation which involves nuclear division by meiosis, resulting in a haploid (half the number of chromostomes) 

3

Define homologous chromosomes

Homologous Chromosomes

  • ​A cell that has two sets of chromosomes (2n), one from the mother and the other from the father

4

Define zygote

Zygote

  • ​​A fertilized egg 

5

Define diploid (2n)

Diploid (2n) 

  • Having two sets of chromosomes (2n) 
  • Body cells 

6

Define mitosis 

Mitosis

  • Somatic (body) cell division; nuclear division in which the duplicated chromosomes separate to form two genetically identical daughter nuclei

7

Define meiosis  

Meiosis: 

  • A type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell,

8

Define meiosis I

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Meiosis I

  • The first round of cell division in meiosis
  • Referred to as "reduction division" because homologous chromosomes separate, and the daughter cells have only the haploid number of chromosomes 

9

Define meiosis II

 

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Meiosis II

  • The second round of division in meiosis, during which two haploid cells from meiosis I undergo a mitosis like division without DNA replication to produce four haploid daughter cells 

10

Define stem cell

Stem cell

  • an undifferentiated cell of a multicellular organism that is capable of giving rise to indefinitely more cells of the same type, and from which certain other kinds of cell arise by differentiation

11

When does DNA replication occur? 

DNA replication occurs in the S phase of the cell cycle.

(Prior to mitosis and meiosis) 

12

Define spermatogonium

Spermatogonium

  • Stem cells (2n) which originates in the wall of the seminiferous tubules and eventually divides into two primary spermatocytes (2n)

13

Define spermatogenesis.

Spermatogenesis

  • "Human sperm production"
  • The process of gametogenesis in males which occurs in the seminiferous tubules
  •  

14

Define primary spermatocyte.

Primary spermatocyte

  • Originated from spermatogonium through mitosis
  • Primary spermatocytes are diploid (2N) cells containing 46 chromosomes.

15

Define secondary spermatocyte

Secondary Spermatocyte

  • Primary spermatocytes (2n)  that undergo meiosis to become haploid (n)
  • Secondary spermatocytes are haploid (N) cells that contain 23 chromosomes.

16

Define spermatids

Spermatids 

  • an immature male sex cell formed from a secondary spermatocyte that can develop into a spermatozoa without further division

17

Define functional sperm

Functional Sperm

  • Mature male reproductive cell that is haploid (n)

18

Histology.

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  1. Spermatogonium (2n)
  2. Primary spermatocyte (2n)
  3. Secondary spermatocyte (n)
  4. Early spermatids (n)
  5. Late spermatids (n)
  6. Spermatogenesis
  7. Functional sperm (spermatozoa) (n)
  8. Sertoli (nurse) cells' nucleus (2n)

19

Spermatogenesis Histology

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Spermatogenesis

  1. Spermatogonia (2n)
  2. Primary spermatocyte (2n)
  3. Secondary spermatocyte (n)
  4. Spermatids (n) 

20

Spermatogenesis Histology

 

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Spermatogenesis

  1. Primary spermatocyte (2n)
  2. Secondary spermatocyte (n)
  3. Sperm (n)
  4. Spermatid (n) 
  5. Sertolic cells (2n)
  6. Spermatogonia (2n) 

21

Spermatogenesis Histology

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Spermatogenesis 

  1. Sertoli cells (2n)
  2. Secondary spermatocyte (n)
  3. Primary spermatocyte (2n)
  4. Spermatid (n) 

22

Spermatogenesis Histology 

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Spermatogenesis 

  1. Primary spermatocyte (2n)
  2. Secondary spermatocyte (n)
  3. Spermatogonia (2n)
  4. Leydig cells (interstitual endocrinocytes) (2n) 

23

Identify the structure and its parts

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  1. Head with acrosome
  2. Midpiece (body)
  3. Tail
  4. Sperm (spermatozoa)
  5. 23 chromosomes (n) 

24

Define follicle.

Follicle

  •  A saclike structure that the immature ovum develops in 

25

Define oogenesis

Oogenesis

  • Female gamate formation that occurs in the ovaries

26

Define follicular cells (granulosa cells) 

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Follicular cells (granulosa cells)

  • Follicular cells are the surrounding cells of the follicle (single layer)
  • Granulosa cells is more than one layer of cells around the follicle
  • Occurs before birth 

27

Define primordial follicle

Primordial Follicle 

  • Single layer of squamouslike follicle cells that encapsulate the oogonia during fetal development 
  • Before birth and through infancy and childhood 

28

Define primary oocyte

Primary Oocyte 

  •  

29

What is the correlation between the primary follicle and primary oocyte?

30

What is the secondary follicle?

31

What is the correlation between the secondary follicle and primary oocyte?

32

Define mature (Graafian/vesicular) follicle

33

Define anturm

34

Define secondary oocyte

35

What is the correlation between the mature follicle, anturm, and secondary oocyte?

36

Define corpus luteum

37

Define albicans

38

Define oogonia

39

Label 1-8

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  1. Ovarian suspensory ligament
  2. Cortex
  3. Corpus luteum
  4. Graafian follicle at ovulation
  5. Secondary oocyte
  6. Corona radiata
  7. Oocyte
  8. Primary follicle 

40

Label 9-16

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9. Germinal epithelium

10. Secondary follicle

11. Corpus albicans

12. Pri-mor-dial follicle

13. Corpus hemorr-hag-icum

14. Medulla

15. Ovarian ligament

16. Ovarian artery and vein