Which kidney is more inferior and why?
The right kidney due to the position of the liver
Is the kidney retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal?
What does the urethra and the 2 ureters form?
The trigone of the bladder
What are the main functions of the kidneys?
Remove metabolic waste Control RBC production Regulate BP Regulate Volume and pH of body fluids Is involved in Vitamin D synthesis
What is the TransPyloric Plane?
The TPP is a theoretical line halfway between jugular notch and the pubic symphysis. It is also known as Addison’s plane
What structures does the TransPyloric Plane pass through?
The Pyloris of the stomach, the hilum of both kidneys and the L1 spine.
What direction is the long axis of the kidneys angled relative to the vertical midsagittal plane?
Inferolaterally with lower end facing away from midsagittal plane
Which kidney is further away from the midsagittal plane?
The right kidney
Where are the kidneys located relative to the spinal chord?
T12 - L3
How far is the hilum of the kidneys from the midsaggital plane?
What colour are the kidneys?
What shape are the kidneys?
What tissue directly encapsulates the kidneys?
Tough fibrous renal capsule
What are the kidney’s dimensions?
Which kidney is longer?
The left kidney may be 1.5cm longer
How much does the kidney typically weigh?
150 grams in males 135 grams in females
Which border of the kidney is convex and which is concave?
Lateral border is convex Medial border is concave
Where are kidney hilum structure located relative to each other?
Renal vein is most anterior Renal artery is most posterior Renal pelvis is most inferior
What direction does the kidney’s anterior border face?
What direction does the kidney’s posterior border face?
What is the shape of the superior border of the kidneys?
Rounded, thick, and nearer to the midline of the body
Which pole is larger; the superior or inferior pole of the kidney?
The Superior pole
What are the layers that surround the kidneys?
Renal capsule -> Perirenal fat -> Fascia of gerota -> pararenal fat -> Parietal peritoneum
Where does the fascia of gerota originate?
The fascia of the Transversus Abdominus
What are the contents of the renal bed?
Diaphragm Psoas major + Quadratus Lumborum Transversus abdominis Medial and lateral collateral lumbocostal arches 11th and 12th rib
Which ribs run posteriorly to the right kidney?
11th rib only
Which ribs run posteriorly to the left kidney?
11th and 12th rib
Which nerves run posterior to the kidneys?
Ilioinguinal N Iliohypogastric N Subcostal N
Which muscles run posteriorly to the kidneys?
Diaphragm superiorly which separates kidneys from 12th pair of ribs Psoas major medially Quadratus lumborum in the center Transversus abdominis laterally
Which part of the kidney does the diaphragm run posteriorly to?
Which part of the kidney does the psoas major run posteriorly to?
Which muscle runs posterior to the lateral side of the kidney?
Which muscle runs directly posterior to the kidney?
Which organs run anteriorly to the right kidney?
Right lobe of the liver superiorly duodenum near the hilum and medial side of the kidney right colic flexure Loops of jejunum inferiorly Right suprarenal gland superiorly which is also covered by the right lobe of the liver
What organs run anteriorly to the left kidney?
Stomach superiorly Spleen superiolaterally Pancreas at the hilum and medial surface left colic flexure inferolaterally Loops of jejunum inferomedially Leftsuprarenal gland which is also covered by gastric surface
What are the 2 types of structures that make up the kidneys?
Renal parenchyma (glandular tissue) Renal sinus (cavity within the kidney)
What structures is the renal parenchyma composed of?
Renal cortex Renal medulla
What structures occupy the renal sinus?
Renal Pelvis Calices Vessels Nerves Variable amount of fat
What shape is the renal parenchyma in a frontal section?
What are renal calices?
Tubes within kidneys that move the urine into the renal pelvis
What are the 2 components of the renal parenchyma?
Renal cortex Renal medulla
What structures project from the renal medulla into the cortex?
Medullary rays (up to 500 of them)
What structures are found in the renal medulla?
8 - 12 renal pyramids Renal papillae Renal columns
What is another name for renal columns?
Columns of Bertini
What does the renal pelvis do?
Collects urine from all major calices and drains them into ureters
What structures drain into the major calices?
What are renal columns?
An extension of the renal cortex between the renal pyramids
What do the renal columns do?
It keeps the renal cortex well anchored It contains the blood vessels that supply the blood to the cortex where filtration takes place
How many lobes does each kidney typically have?
8 - 18
What are the components of a single renal lobe?
A single renal pyramid overlying renal cortex Adjacent renal columns
What makes up a single renal lobule?
single medullary ray and surrounding cortical tissue
What structures are contained within renal lobules?
A collecting duct and all nephron units that drain into it