What are the signs and symptoms of depression?
Behaviour: Not going out anymore, not getting things done in work/school, withdrawing from close family and friends, relying on alcohol and sedatives, not doing enjoyable activities.
Feelings: Overwhelmed, guilty, irritable, frustrated, lacking in confidence, unhappy, indecesisive, miserable, sad.
Thoughts (i’m a failure, it’s my fault, nothing good ever happens to me, i’m worthless)
Physical (Tired all the time, sick and run down, headaches and muscle pains, churning gut, sleep problems, loss or change of appetite, significant weight loss or gain.)
What are the causes of depression?
Unknown; thought to be related to changes in areas of the brain that help regulate mood, nerve cell connections, nerve cell growth, and functioning of nerve circuits, understanding the neurological underpinnings of mood is incomplete.
Neurotransmitters likely play a role in depression.
Hormones (thyroid problems, post partum depression, etc)
What are the risk factors for depression?
Death or loss
Extreme change in life events
Other mental illness
LGBTIQA+ in an unsupportive situation
Certain personality traits/low self esteem, self-critical or pessimistic
What are the types of depression?
Major depressive disorder (+/- melancholia)
Persistent depressive disorder
What is major depressive disorder?
dark mood is all-consuming and one loses
interest in activities, even ones that are usually pleasurable. Symptoms
include trouble sleeping, changes in appetite or weight, loss of energy, and
feeling worthless. Thoughts of death or suicide may occur
What is major depressive disorder with melancholia?
Usually severe; marked
by a loss of pleasure in almost all activities, or inability to enjoy once
pleasurable things (also called anhedonia).
What are the symptoms of major depressive disorder with melancholia?
Symptoms include: despondency, despair, feeling ‘empty’, early morning
wakening, slowing down of movement or restlessness, significant weight loss,
What is psychotic depression?
Major depressive disorder associated with
delusions, hallucinations and feelings of paranoia. It is less common than
other types of depression
What is persistent depressive disorder?
Low mood; a persistent ‘down’ feeling for
more than two years, together with other symptoms of depression
What is perinatal depression?
Depression that occurs during pregnancy or after the birth of a baby
What are the barriers to help seeking based on surveys of people with depression?
Can’t afford services
Negative impact on career
My problems not important
No knowledge of services
Services indicate weakness
Peer judgement or discovery
Services not appropriate for me or culturally appropriate