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Flashcards in Anatomy of the Thigh Deck (72):
1

How is body weight transferred in the body?

Vertebral column --> sacroiliac joints --> pelvic girdle --> hip joints --> femurs --> knee joints --> Tibia --> ankle joints --> arches of the foot
- Body weight is equally distributed from right and left hip

2

Angle of inclination

Angle of the femur
1. Normal is 126 degrees
2. Angle widest at birth 140 degrees
3. Angle narrowest in old age 110 degrees
4. In females the angle is greater due to wider hips

3

Superficial fascia

1. Continuous with abdominal fascia
2. Embedded within are many nerves and blood vessels

4

What are the names of the cutaneous nerves of the thigh?

1. Genital branch of genitofemoral
2. Ilioinguinal
3. Femoral branch of genitofemoral
4. Medial femoral
5. Intermediate femoral
6. Lateral femoral
7. Posterior femoral

5

Characteristics of genital branch of genitofemoral nerve

L1, L2
1. Emerge from superficial ring to supply proximal medial thigh
2. Most of the branches go to genital region

6

Characteristics of ilioinguinal nerve

L1
1. Emerge from superficial ring to supply proximal medial thigh
2. Most of the branches go to genital region

7

Characteristics of femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve

L1, L2
1. Supplies skin over the femoral triangle
2. Proximal part of anterior thigh

8

Characteristics of medial femoral cutaneous branch

1. Branch off the femoral nerve
2. Supplies skin of the medial thigh

9

Characteristics of intermediate femoral cutaneous branch

1. Branch of femoral nerve
2. Supplies skin of the distal anterior thigh

10

Characteristics of lateral femoral cutaneous branch

L2, L3
1. NOT part of the femoral nerve
2. Enters the thigh medial to ASIS
3. Supplies skin of lateral thigh
4. Sits lateral to intermediate cutaneous branch

11

Characteristics of posterior femoral cutaneous nerve

S1-S3
1. Supplies posterior thigh and popliteal region
2. Originates from sacral plexus

12

Dermatome levels for the leg

1. L1-L5 for lower body skin
2. S2-S3 back of the thigh

13

Superficial arteries are branches from what artery?

- branches from the femoral artery mainly
1. Superficial circumflex iliac artery
2. Superficial external pudendal artery
3. Deep external pudendal artery

14

Vein of the thigh

Great saphenous vein
1. Begins in the foot and ascends to proximal part of the thigh
2. Empties into the femoral vein
3. Enters the thigh passing posterior to the medial condyle of the femur

15

What does the deep fascia or fascia lata do for the muscles?

1. Prevents the muscles from bulging
2. Attaches to the IT band to hold it up
3. Provides intermuscular septa that divides the thigh into 3 compartments

16

Iliotibial tract band (IT)

Lateral thickening of the fascia
Acts like a stocking that is held up by the tensor fascia latae

17

Where does the tensor fascia lata attach?

Superiorly = Inguinal ligament, parts of the hip bone, sacrum/coccyx, scarpa's fascia, sacrotuberous ligament
Inferiorly = knee joint becomes continuous with crural fascia

18

What nerve are all the muscles of the anterior compartment innervated by?

Femoral nerve

19

What is the action of all the muscles of the anterior compartment?

1. Flexors of the hip
2. Extensors of the knee

20

Characteristics of the sartorius muscle

Part of anterior compartment
O: ASIS
I: superior part of medial surface of tibia
Crosses 2 joints = hip and knee joint ergo produce movement at both joint

21

What is the pes anserinus?

3 muscles that insert on the same area
1. Sartorius
2. Gracilis
3. Semitendinosus

22

Characteristics of quadriceps femoris muscle

Part of anterior compartment
Tendon attaches to patella via patella ligament
Comprised of 4 muscles
1. Rectus femoris
2. Vastus lateralis
3. Vastus medialis
4. Vastus intermedius

23

Recuts femoris O and I

Part of anterior compartment
one of the quadricep femoris muscles
O: AIIS
I: patella

24

Vastus lateralis O and I

Part of anterior compartment
One of the quadriceps femoris muscles
O: linea aspera
I: Patella

25

Vastus medialis O and I

Part of anterior compartment
One of the quadriceps femoris muscles
O: linea aspera
I: patella

26

Vastus intermedius

Part of anterior compartment
One of the quadriceps femoris muscles
O: body of femur
I: patella

27

Characteristics of articularis genu

Part of anterior compartment
O: Anterior part of femur
I: synovial membrane of knee

28

Characteristics of iliopsoas

Part of anterior compartment
I: trochanter
2 muscles grouped together
1. Psoas major
2. Iliacus

29

Psoas major O and I

Part of anterior compartment
O: lumbar vertebra
I: lesser trochanter of femur

30

Iliacus O and I

Part of anterior compartment
O: iliac crest and iliac fossa
I: lesser trochanter of femur

31

Tensor fascia latae O and I

Part of anterior compartment
O: ASIS
I: iliotibial tract

32

What nerve innervates all but one muscle in the medial compartment?

obturator nerve minus the hamstring part of the adductor magnus which is supplied by the tibial nerve

33

Characteristics of pectinus muscle

Part of medial compartment
O: superior ramus of pubis
I: Pectineal line of femur
Innervated by the femoral and obturator nerve

34

Adductor longus O and I

Part of medial compartment
O: body of pubic bone
I: linea aspera

35

Adductor brevis O and I

Part of medial compartment
O: inferior ramus of pubic bone
I: Linea aspera

36

Characteristics of adductor magnus muscle

Part of medial compartment
Made up of 2 parts:
1. Adductor part
2. Hamstring part
Contains an adductor hiatus to allow vessels to get to the back of the knee joint

37

Adductor part of adductor magnus O and I

O: ischiopubic ramus
I: linea aspera
brings thighs together
supplied by obturator nerve

38

Hamstring part of adductor magnus O and I

O: ischial tuberosity
I: adductor tubercle of femur
supplied by tibial nerve

39

Characteristics of Gracilis muscle

O: inferior ramus of pubis
I: superior part of medial surface of tibia
Part of pes anserinus

40

Obturator externus O and I

O: Margins of obturator foramen and obturator membrane
I: trochanteric fossa of femur

41

What nerve innervates all the muscles in the posterior compartment?

Tibial nerve except the short head to biceps femoris

42

What makes up the posterior compartment?

hamstring muscles

43

What is the action of the posterior compartment muscles?

1. Extend the hip
2. Flex the knee

44

Where do all of the muscles in the posterior compartment originate?

ischial tuberosity

45

Characteristics of the biceps femoris muscle

Has 2 heads
1. Long- follows all the norms for the posterior compartment
2. short- different from the norms

46

Short head of the biceps femoris muscles O and I

O: Linea aspera
I: Fibular head
N: common peroneal nerve
Not considered a muscle

47

Semitendinosus O and I

O: Ischial tuberosity
I: medial surface of upper tibia

48

Semimembranosus O and I

O: ischial tuberosity
I: medial tibial condyle

49

Where is the femoral triangle located?

triangular space in proximal part of anterior compartment

50

Boundaries of femoral triangle

1. Superiorly - inguinal ligament
2. Medial - medial border of adductor longus
3. Laterally- medial border of sartorius

51

What does the femoral sheath cover?

Laterally- femoral artery
Intermediate- femoral vein
Medial- femoral canal filled with connective tissue and lymphatic vessels

52

What are the contents of the femoral triangle?

1. Femoral artery and its branches
2. Femoral vein and its tributaries
3. Femoral nerve and its branches
4. Lymphatic vessels and nodes

53

Adductor canal contents

1. Femoral artery and vein
2. Saphenous nerve
3. nerve to vastus medialis

54

What are the boundaries of the adductor canal?

Anteromedial- sartorius
Lateral- vastus medialis
Posterior- adductor longus and magnus

55

2 main nerves of the thigh

1. Femoral nerve - L2-L4
2. Obturator nerve- anterior and posterior division

56

Femoral nerve sensory branches

1. Medial femoral cutaneous nerve
2. Intermediate femoral cutaneous nerve
3. nerve to vastus medialis
4. Saphenous nerve

57

Characteristics of saphenous nerve

- travels through adductor canal
- leaves the canal at the lower end to innervate the skin of the leg and foot

58

Femoral nerve motor branches go to which muscles in the thigh?

1. Sartorius
2. Quadriceps femoris
3. Articularis genu
4. Pectineus

59

Characteristics of the femoral nerve

1. Largest branch of the lumbar plexus
2. Travels deep to inguinal ligament to enter the femoral triangle
3. Not inside the femoral sheath when is branches into sensory and motor but still inside the triangle

60

What does the anterior division of the obturator nerve innervate?

muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh
Located between the adductor longus and adductor brevis

61

What does the posterior division of the obturator nerve innervate?

Muscles in the posterior compartment of the thigh
Located behind adductor longus and adductor brevis

62

What are the 2 main arteries that supply the thigh?

1. Femoral artery- many branches
2. Obturator artery

63

What is the femoral artery a continuation of?

External iliac artery

64

What branch of the femoral artery goes to the back of the thigh?

Profunda femoris
-largest branch
-gives off 4 perforating branches to supply the hamstring muscles

65

What are the branches of the femoral artery in the thigh?

1. Profunda femoris
2. Lateral and medial femoral circumflex
3. Muscular branches
4. Descending genicular
5. Popliteal- where it ends

66

What are the 4 cruciate anastomsis?

1. 1st perforating artery
2. Medial femoral circumflex artery
3. Lateral femoral circumflex artery
4. Inferior gluteal artery

67

Obturator artery

1. Branch from internal iliac artery
2. Blood supply to medial thigh

68

What is the popliteal fossa?

-Fat filled diamond space on back of knee

69

What structure allows vessels back to the popliteal fossa?

adductor hiatus

70

What vessels are on the back of the knee?

Popliteal artery and vein
Was the femoral artery and vein
Gives of the genicular artery branches

71

Characteristics of the popliteal fossa?

1. Where the sciatic nerve splits into common peroneal and tibial nerve
2. Popliteal lymph nodes
3. Termination of small spahenous vein- drains into popliteal vein

72

What are the boundaries of the popliteal fossa?

1. inferomedial and inferolateral- gastrocnemius muscle
2. Superolateral- biceps femoris
3. Superomedial- semimembranosus tendon
4. Floor- popliteal surface of femur and posterior knee ligaments